REL 1350

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1053 CE

Great Schism between the Eastern and Western Church

1517 CE

Luther Publishes 95 Theses

313 CE

Edict of Milan legalizes Christianity

325 CE

Council of Nicea, convened by Constantine. Discussed nature of the Trinity (homoousias). Produced Nicean Creed.

381 CE

homoousias affirmed at Council of Constantinople

410 CE

During this year the Western Roman Empire falls at the hands of Alaric I and the Visigoths when Rome is sacked and conquered.

431 CE

Council of Ephesus proclaims Mary "theotokos" and affirms God has one nature, 3 persons.

451 CE

Council of Chalcedon concluded the Christology question

70 CE

Destruction of the second temple

732 CE

Charles Martel wins the Battle of Tours (end of Muslim move into France)

90 CE

The council of Jamnia, formed the canon of the Hebrew Bible

Adolf von Harnack

historian concerned for historical Jesus and His "simple message"

Aimee Semple McPherson

United States evangelist (born in Canada) noted for her extravagant religious services (1890-1944). Pentacostalism, re: feminism as well.

Alaric

A visigoths general who sacked Rome

Albrecht Ritschl

German theologian, originated the social gospel movement through his liberalism, concerned for church involvement

Alexandria

City in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great, center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization. One of the four major Christian cities.

Anabaptists

A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; re: believer's baptism, shunning, Munster rebellion.

Antioch

A great metropolis in Syria. The second center of Christianity after Jerusalem. The name "Christian" was first used in ____

Antony

of Egypt. His life and work contributed to the spread and popularity of monasticism.

Apostolic Authority

the idea that as long as the apostles lived, the churches had the benefit of having special leaders appointed directly by Christ Himself and authorized to speak and act in His name. It is passed down to their followers via apostolic succession

Arius

"There was when he was not," believed Jesus came second to God the Father. This was ruled as heresy at the Council of Nicaea in 325. Arianism spread by barbarian tribes despite the doctrine.

Aryan clause

Hitler said that Jews could hold no civil position in Germany, however Bonhoeffer said that no church is a church if they reject Jews, excludes any of non-Aryan race, no Jews in public places, no mixed marriages, Jews should not be in the work place. Barth joined the Confessing Church and denounced the Aryan clause

Augustine

Influential church father and theologian; born in Africa and ultimately Bishop of Hippo in Africa; champion of Christian doctrine against various heresies and very important in the long-term development of Christian thought. Re: City of God and Confessions.

Averroes

Muslim philosopher who used Greek philosophy to explain Islamic truth. THE Commentator for Aquinas's Summa.

Avicenna

Arabian philosopher and physician

Barmen Declaration

Is a statement of the Confessing Church opposing the Nazi-supported "German Christians" movement known for its anti-Semitism and extreme nationalism. The Declaration was mostly written by Reformed theologian Karl Barth as well as in part by other Confessing Church leaders.

Basil the Great

Cappadocian Father,the bishop of Caesarea who defended the Church against the heresies of the 4th century

Believer's Baptism

Practiced by Anabaptists, when the candidate feels old enough they will state their faith before the congregation and will be baptised - as an adult.

Black Theology

refers to theologies that have at their base the idea that God is on the side of those who suffer most, and is geared towards liberation of Black people from oppression.

Byzantine Empire

(330-1453) The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the fall of the Western Empire at the end of the 5th century C.E. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine.

Cajetan

Cardinal seeking Luther to recant, but was not successful because he thought Luther was trying to resurrect the Conciliarist controversy.

Canon

A rule or principle that provides the norm for judgment=the name for the accepted books of the Bible,

Canticle of the Sun

a poem of Francis of Assisi.

Cappadocian Fathers

The three men (Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa, and Gregory of Nazianzus) who made major contributions to the definition of the Trinity.

Charlemagne

800 AD crowned by the Pope as the head of the Holy Roman Empire, which extended from northern Spain to western Germany and northern Italy. Grandson of Charles Martel.

Charles Martel

Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe.

City of God

Augustine's book written after the sack of Rome

Clovis

The first "barbarian" to convert to Christianity

Confessions

Book written by Augustine describing his life and conversion

Constantine

Roman Emperor between 306 CE and 337 CE. He issued the Edict of Milan which outlawed the persecution of Christians. He also founded the city of Constantinople, the future capital of the Byzantine Empire.

Constantinople

A large and wealthy city that was the imperial capital of the Byzantine empire and later the Ottoman empire, now known as Istanbul

Council of Chalcedon

451: Reaffirms the Christological definitions of Nicaea and Constantinople, declares Christ to be one Person in two unconfused natures, Divine and human

Council of Constantinople

381 AD, revised the Nicene Creed by adding Clauses referring to the Holy Spirit

Council of Ephesus

431, Condemned Pelagianism and Nestorianism; confirmed Jesus is one divine person; Mary is the Mother of God (Theotokos)

Council of Jamnia

Jewish meeting that established Hebrew cannon (Tanakh)

Council of Nicaea

Christian council that met in 325 to determine the question of the trinity; decided on the divinity of all three persons.

Council of Trent

(1545-1563); met periodically to discuss the Church's reformation and open dialogue with Luther, other reformists.

Counter-Reformation

the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the authority of the Pope and important traditions and beliefs of the Church. Opened conversation about

Cyprian

Disagreements over Baptism and what to do with lapsed Christians

Cyril

Created an alphabet for the writing of Slavic languages, devised in the ninth century A.D.

Cyrillic text

Alphabet for writing of Slavic languages

Deism

A popular Enlightenment era belief that there is a God, but that God isn't involved in people's lives or in revealing truths to prophets.

Desiderius Erasmus

Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe

Diet of Worms

Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.

Dietrich Bonhoeffer

A Protestant minister who believed that faith in Jesus should lead Christians to actively resist the inhumanity around them

Diocletian

Roman general and Emperor who persecuted Christianity

Dominicans

Founded by Saint Dominic. Members of these religious orders, friars, lived and preached among the people instead of secluding themselves in monastries as members of most other religious orders did. Church ordered to seek out heretics and eliminate hersey.

Donation of Constantine

This was a fraudulent Roman imperial edict which was supposedly written by Constantine the Great. In this edict, the Pope was given the power of civil authority. Later on during the Renaissance period, this edict was proven to be fabricated

Donatists

Believed validity that sacraments come from holiness of the priest

Early universities

First appeared in Bologna. man who taught Roman Law attracted students from all over Europe. all were men. first university was the Unversity Of Paris and then Oxford.

Edict of Milan

313 CE Constantine makes Christianity the primary religion of the Roman Empire

Elizabethan Compromise

Elizabeth I of England adopted a policy of religious compromise between Protestants and Catholics; she remained a Protestant.

Feminism

The movement that grew alongside other liberation discourses, focused on women's rights and leadership.

Filioque

"And from the Son"; a Latin word added to the creeds in the Westerns Church to state that the Holy Spirit arises from both Father and Son.

Francis of Assisi

(Roman Catholic Church) an Italian and the Roman Catholic monk who founded the Franciscan order of friars (1181-1226)

Franciscans

Founded by St. Francis of Assis in 1209. Attempted Church reform, for example preaching directly to the people rather than monastic life. Members were called Friars

Frederick the Wise

Martin Luther's prince who gave him a place to hide after he was declared an outlaw

Geneva

John Calvin's "City on the Hill," created a small paradise for sharing of beliefs with other Calvinists.

George Whitfield

English evangelical preacher of the Great Awakening whose charismatic style attracted huge crowds during his preaching tours of colonies.

Gnosticism

A heresy from the first Christian centuries that taught that Jesus shared secret information or knowledge with only a few people who were guaranteed Salvation. Gnosticism comes from gnosis, the Greek word for "knowledge." Gnosticism also distrusted material creation, teaching that the human body was evil

Great Awakening

Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.

Gregory Nanzianzus

poet and hymn writer, one of the Cappadocian Fathers

Gregory of Nyssa

one of the three Cappadocian fathers, God reveals Godself to be one and three Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; emphasized the oneness of God

Gregory Palamas

an orthodox Christian monk of Mount Athos in Greece whose work the Triads defended the hesychast spirituality and used the distinction between God's essence and God's energies to explain how people participate through grace in a union of love with the divine

Gustavo Gutierrez

Theologian and Dominican priest who wrote A Theology of Liberation, which emphasized that theology is not just to be learned, it is to be done; one must immerse themselves in the struggle to transform society, meaning revolutionary action on behalf of the poor.

Habiru

A name referring to a social group in the ancient Middle East who lived on the fringe of society, at times referring to roving bands, mercenaries, and foreign slaves. It may be that the Hebrews emerged from one such group.

Hagia Sophia

Eastern Orthodox church built in Constantinople

Hermeneutic circle

The notion that a reader cannot fully understand any part of a text until the whole is understood, while the whole cannot be understood until all the parts are understood.

Herod the Great

37-4 BC Slayer of the innocents in Bethlehem. An immensely powerful, unbelievably wicked, insanely jealous and murderous King. Prolific builder, reconstructing and beautifying the Jewish Temple. Building numerous fortresses and palaces. Four of his sons divided up parts of the kingdom

Hesychasm

Eastern Church. Emphasis on "inner quietness"

Hildegard of Bingen

Abbess of a religious house in Western Germany; one of first important women composesrs and contributor to Gregorian chant; had visions and was mystic and prophet to kings, popes, emperors, priests

Huldrych Zwingli

(1484-1531) a Swiss Catholic priest who rejected more of the Catholic teachings than Luther. Zwingli believed that the Eucharist was only a symbol to remind us of the last Supper. Zwingli's ideas are followed in the Reformed (protestant) Churches.

Iconoclasm

A belief that the practice of worshiping and honoring objects such as icons was sinful.

Ignatius of Loyola

(1491-1556) Spanish churchman and founder of the Jesuits (1534); this order of Roman Catholic priests proved an effective force for reviving Catholicism during the Catholic Reformation.

Indulgences

(johann tetzel sold them) , Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. The practice led to the Reformation.

Jerusalem

A city in the Holy Land, regarded as sacred by Christians, Muslims, and Jews

Jesuits

Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.

John Calvin

(1509-1564) The Frenchman was influenced by Luther and converted religions and became a highly influential Protestant leader. His "The Institutes of the Christian Religion" (1535) which expressed his view on Christian teachings as faith oriented. RE: Predestination, Calvinism

John Tetzel

Dominican inquisitor; collector of indulgences

John Wesley

English clergyman and founder of Methodism (1703-1791)

Jonathan Edwards

A Congregationalist preacher of the Great Awakening who spoke of the fiery depths of hell.

Joseph Caiaphas

The high priest at the time of Jesus' Crucifixion was:

Judas Maccabeus

Led a Jewish family in revolting against the Greek Empire, resulting in the Jews taking back control of The Temple for some time. Started Maccabean dynasty that lasted about 100 years

Justin Martyr

Church Father, advocated using the word "Logos"

Justinian

Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code

Karl Barth

A Swiss Protestant theologian who said people were sinful and that religious truth was made know to humans only through God's grace, and people just had to accept God as true and be obedient.

Latin Vulgate

created by Jerome, first Bible able to be read by the common people as it was written in the vernacular

Libelli

document given to a Roman citizen to certify performance of a pagan sacrifice, hence demonstrating loyalty to the authorities of the Roman Empire under Decius in the 3rd Century

Liberalism

An Enlightenment philosophy that favored civil rights, the protection of private property, and representative government

Liberation Theology

A combination of Catholic theology and socialism, promoted (but not employed) in Latin America by some clergy and fewer politicians, with a focus on fighting injustice

Macrina

Sister to Basil the Great, who started her brother on his monastic pursuits. Cappadocian

Manichees

claimed that the material world is evil and that it was created by an evil spirit.

Marcion

A convert to Christianity who moved to Rome in 140 AD and argued that Christianity had Judaized. As a result, he maintained that canon should include only a shortened form of Luke's Gospel and 10 of Paul's epistles (excluding the pastorals).

Martin Luther

95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.

Maximus Confessor

A supporter of Jesus's will (distinct from God's will). Lost his right hand and tongue because he would't renounce his beliefs., Most significant theologian for the East Emphasizes Theosis

Medieval Mysticism

Mostly women. played a supporting role in religious orders; could not be limited in their experiential depth

Menno Simons

Pacifist leader of the Anabaptists who continued the movement in northwestern Europe, followers known as Mennonites

Modalism

A trinitarian heresies which believe that there is only one person who is God (Monotheism) but that one person has 3 different personalities, styles, modes of behaving or acting

Monasticism

A way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith

Eremitic monasticism

solitary practice of faith away from community, in a desert or cave

Cenobitic monasticism

a form of monasticism in which monks live together in a community rather than as hermits

Anchoritic monasticism

solitary monasticism

Monica

Augustine's mother

montanism

Founded by Montanus in the 2nd century, he believed that due to an outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon him, he knew that a new, heavenly kingdom was imminent. One of the first apocalyptic heresies, his followers lived a very austere life rejecting second marriages and flight from persecution.

Moses

(Old Testament) the Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus

Nepotism

The practice of inheriting a church position due to family relationship

Nestorius

Bishop of Constantinople who called for the council of Ephesus because he believed Jesus was 2 persons, started Nestorian branch.

Nicaea

First ecumenical council was the council of ______ in 325 AD.

Nicholas Ludwig Von Zinzendorf

Moravians; "Do you know Jesus Christ"

Nouvelle Theologie

(term) shapes Vatican II's agenda, call for more dialogue, greater understanding, and more thought [Chenu, Congar, DeLubac]

Oliver Cromwell

English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.

Origen

An early church father during the second and third centuries. Emphasized the divine inspiration of both Hebrew and Christian scripture. Declared the equality of the Trinity. Pre-existence of souls.

Oxford

1/2 early universities

Pachomius

Former pagan heavily influenced final shape of communal monasticism in early fourth century

Paris

2/2 early universities

Paul of Tarsus

A Jew from Asia Minor that played the most influential role in the spread of Christianity. Paul never met Jesus but he had a vision one day of speaking to him.

Peace of Westphalia

Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.

Pelagius

(ca. 360-420) - British monk who debated with Augustine over the nature of the human will. Pelagius taught that human nature is essentially good, that humans can avoid sinning, and that humans can freely choose to obey God's commands. He was condemned as a heretic by the Council of Carthage in 418.

Pentecostalism

a movement within evangelical Christianity that places special emphasis on having a direct personal experience with God through the baptism of the Holy Spirit. experience of speaking in the unknown language called Glossolalia.

Peter Lombard

authored the Books of Sentences

Philip Jacob Spener

Father of Pietism, Wrote Pia Desideria; devoted to education and social work

Phillip Melanchthon

A German humanist reformer who helped Luther to structure the curriculum at the University of Wittenburg

Pia Desideria

Written by P.J. Spener, this book was aimed at fostering a religious revival in German Protestantism and was a key element in the creation of the pietist movement. It was written in German and Published in 1675.

Pietism

This was a movement within Lutheranism that revived Protestantism that called for an emotional relationship, allowed for the priesthood of all believers, and the Christian rebirth in everyday affairs

Plague of Justinian

Disease similar to bubonic plague, and hit in the later years of Justinian's reign and A disease that contributed to the fall of the Byzantine Empire.

Polycarp

Bishop of Smyma in the first half of the second century, and one of the best known of the early proto-orthodox leaders. In addition to a letter written to him by Ignatius, we have a letter written by him to the church in Philippi, and an allegedly eyewitness count of his martyrdom in the arena at Smyrna around 115 C.E.

Pontius Pilate

Roman Governer who sentenced Jesus to death

Preferential Option for the poor

The principle that say God is particularly concerned about the needs of those who suffered the most and we (humanity) should be too

Prester John

A mythical Christian monarch whose kingdom supposedly had been cut off from Europe by the Muslim conquests; some thought he was Chinggis Khan.

Puritans

A group of Anglicans in England who wanted to purify their church of Catholic ways

Rationalism

(philosophy) the doctrine that knowledge is acquired by reason without resort to experience

Reality/sign

Zwingli, Luther, Calvin all had different opinions on the relationship between ___ and ____ with the Eucharist.

Reason

Called on by the Rationalist movement in the Enlightenment as the only source of true knowledge. Aquinas reconciles it with faith in the Summa.

Reasons for spread of early Christianity

1. embraced all people 2. gave hope to powerless 3. appealed to those who didn't like fanciness of Rome 4. offered personal relationship with God 5. promised eternal life after death

Reformation

A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches

Ressourcement

The return to the sources of Catholicism in the scripture, the Fathers of the Church, the liturgy, and philosophy

Role of monasteries

Gave women power, preserved ancient texts, education, prayed for monarchs

Romanticism

19th-century western European artistic and literary movement; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection.

Rome

Fell in 410 CE. Center for culture and empire. Home to the Vatican.

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