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Acronym

word formed from initials

Allegory

a short moral story (often with animal characters)

Alliteration

repetition of initial consonant sounds

Euphemism

substitution of an inoffensive term for one that is offensive

Hyperbole

extreme exaggeration

Understatement

Deliberately short change something

mood

Feeling of a story

theme

thesis or message

sarcasm

harsh, cutting language or tone intended to ridicule

simile

comparison using "like" or "as"

metaphor

a comparison without using like or as

irony

a contrast between expectation and reality

Idiom

Language specific to a certain people

Symbolism

When a thing represents more than just itself

Foreshadowing

the use of hints and clues to suggest what will happen later in a plot

Personification

the act of attributing human characteristics to abstract ideas etc.

Onomatopeia

words that imitate sounds

Propaganda

information designed to influence opinion

Oxymoron

conjoining contradictory terms (as in 'deafening silence')

Rhetorical Question

a question asked for an effect, not actually requiring an answer

elaboration

to express at greater length

inferences

deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true

sarcasm

sneering, sly, jesting, mocking of a person, situation, or thing

opinion

beliefs or feelings from personal experience

propraganda

deliberate spreading of information, rumor

rhetorical question

question to which no answer is expected

bias

one-sided

supporting details

details that add to or support the central idea

relevant examples

pretaining to the situation

exaggerate

embellish

fact

can be proven

synthesize

blending facts and ideas from multiple sources

point of view

expression of belief/feeling about a subject

rhetorical question

question to which no answer is expected

exaggeration

embellish

elaboration

to express at greater length

synthesize

blending facts and ideas from multiple sources

supporting details

details that add to or support the central idea

penurious

penny-pinching; excessively thrifty; ungenerous

glutton

someone who eats too much

machiavellian

crafty; double-dealing

ludicrous

completely devoid of wisdom or good sense

parsimonious

stingy, miserly; meager, poor, small

bliss

a state of extreme happiness

plight

a situation from which extrication is difficult especially an unpleasant or trying one

fidelity

the quality of being faithful

exuberant

joyously unrestrained

didactic

intended to teach or instruct

nefarious

extremely wicked

vacuous

lacking ideas or intelligence

obstreperous

boisterously and noisily aggressive

reticent

inclined to keep silent; reserved

laconic

short, concise

superfluous

more than is needed, desired, or required

malevolent

wishing or appearing to wish evil to others

euphony

any agreeable (pleasing and harmonious) sounds

benevolent

generous in providing aid to others

misanthrope

someone who dislikes people in general

persuasion

presentation of ideas to convince and compel people to take action

argument

a topic of debate that generates discussion and thinking

claim/assertion/proposition/thesis

that which the author wants the reader to accept as true or reasonable

subclaim

a supplementary point

supporting evidence

material used to support/explain/embellish an opinion or explanation

rebuttal/counterargument

acknowledging an opponent's reasonable arguments

refutation

prove wrong those arguments not reasonable

fact

information that can be proven objectively to be true

statistic

an interpretation of numerical data

interview/survey/questionnaire

first hand information from a primary source

experience/example

information from personal experience representative of a general pattern

opinion

personal interpretation of facts

comparison/allusion/analogy

information comparing easily accepted examples with unfamiliar subjects

authority/expertise

information from an expert on a given subject

causal relationship

information asserted as a result from another event

Ethos (ethical)

appeal to credibility of author

Pathos (emotional)

appeal to emotions

Logos (logical)

appeal to reason

inductive reasoning

based on a number of examples from which a conclusion is drawn- specific to general

deductive reasoning

based on a general principle applied to a specific case- originated from inductive

elaboration

Giving a lot of details.

simile

A comparison between two things using LIKE or AS. (ex. The house was as large as a castle.)

symbolism

The representation of ideas using something to stand for something else (ex. The author may use a rose as a symbol of beauty, or a snake as a symbol of evil)

speculate

To think or talk about the possible causes or effects of something without knowing all the facts or details.

controversial

Causing a lot of disagreement because lots of people have strong opinions about the subject.

rhetorical

A question that is asked only for effect or to make a statement, not to get an answer (ex. How much longer will we put up with this injustice?)

foreshadowing

The hint or suggestion of things to come. (ex. Gray clouds at the beginning of a story may foreshadow a storm later.)

chronological

Arranging information in the order in which it occurred (ex. Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, etc.)

oxymoron

A combination of two contradictory words (ex. Deafening silence, A definite possibility, pretty ugly)

tone

The attitude or viewpoint that an author shows toward the subject (ex. Serious, sympathetic, optimistic, or angry)

allegory

Showing ideas or moral principles through symbolic characters, events or objects (ex. Aesop's fables)

hyperbole

Overstatement or exaggeration for the purpose of emphasis (ex. Her ears were so sharp she could hear dogs bark in the next county.)

satire

Writing that uses humor, irony or wit to attack or make fun of something, such as people's faults

personification

Giving human characteristics to objects, ideas, or animals (ex. The sun smiled down on them.)

alliteration

The repetition of the first sound in words (ex. swift, silent serpent)

expository

exposes the truth or meaning of something

schema

what you already know about something from personal experience

text to text

a connection that you create between something you are reading and something that you have already read, such as a book, film, song, poem, etc.

text to world

a connection that you create between something you are reading and a world event, social issue, or something of historical significance

text to self

a connection that you create between something you are reading and a personal experience that shares something in common with the text

Thesis Statement

states a writer's position on a topic

Plan of Development

list of reasons that support a writer's position on a topic; typically follows the thesis statement at the end of the introduction

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