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Aztec

A Nahuatl people who established an empire in Mexico that was overthrown by Cortes in 1519

Anasazis

People of the four corners region who created an irrigation system and built stone homes on the sides of cliffs called Adobes.

Bartholomeu Diaz

In 1487, he was the first Portugese Explorer to sail around the southern tip of Africa (The Cape of Hope), which established a sea route from the Atlantic to Asia.

Bartolome de Las Casas

A Spanish missionary of southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting American indian peoples from exploitation and opposed the encomienda system.

black legend

Belief that the Spanish only killed, tortured, and stole in the Americas, while doing nothing good for the native american people.

Cahokia

Important Mississippian culture site, near present-day East St. Louis, Illinois

Canadian Shield

Probably the first part of the North American landmass to emerge above sea level

caravel

A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.

cartography

the making or study of maps or charts

Chaco Canyon

Urban center established by Anasazi.

Christian Crusaders

Indirectly responsible for discovery of Americas by develping a taste for the goods of Asia

Christopher Cloumbus

Italian explorer who discovered America in 1492, in an attempt to find a route to Asia for Spain.

conquistador

Spanish soldiers who sought riches and power for themselves, and wealth and glory for Spain, in the conquest of the Americas

ecosystem

system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their environment.

encomienda

A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it

Father Junipero Serra

Spanish missionary who founded a chain of 21 missions along the California coast

Ferdinand Magellan

Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world.

Ferdinand and Isabella

King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile married in 1469 to bring the kingdoms of Spain together to complete the reconquest of Spain from the Muslims.

Francisco Pizzarro

Spanish explorer who led the conquest of the Inca Empire of Peru in 1531-1533.

Francisco Coronado

leader of Spanish expedition into northern frontier region of New Spain in search of mythical cities of gold.

Great Ice Age

Supposedly occurred 35000 years ago; Exposing a land bridge between Alaska & Siberia. Possibly Allowing people to migrate to America.

Hernan Cortez

Spanish explorer who conquered the Native American civilization of the Aztecs in 1519 in what is now Mexico.

Hiawatha

Indian leader who called together five Native American tribes, forming the Iroquis Confederacy around 1570.

Incas

Ancient civilization that was located in the Andes in Peru. Destroyed in 1536 by spanish conquistador.

Indirect Discoverers

Norse Men (sailed), Christian Crusaders (desired route to Asia) , Muslim middlemen (high prices)

Iroquois Confederacy

A powerful group of Native Americans in the eastern part of the U.S. made up of five nations: the Mohawk, Seneca, CAyuga, Onondaga, and Oneiga

Jacques Cartier

French explorer who explored the St. Lawrence river and laid claim to the region for France (1491-1557)

Jaun Ponce de Leon

Spanish explorer who discovered and named Florida while looking for the fountain of youth.

John Cabot

Italian explorer who led the English expedition in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America and explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland

Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo

Portugese explorer who explored the California coast in 1542 for spain but failed to find San Francisco Bay or anything else of interest.

maize

Crop upon which the Inca and Aztec agricultural practices were based

Malinche

Native woman who helped translate for Cortes

Malinchista

word for traitor in Mexican, derived from the name of Cortés' translator

Marco Polo

Italian merchant and traveler whose accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.

matrilinear

form of society in which family line, power, and wealth are passed primarily through the female side

Mayas

The Indians of one of the most advanced early civilizations of the Western Hemisphere; made their home in Central America.

mestizo

person of mixed American Indian and European ancestry

middlmen

people who acted as go-betweens for other groups (traders). Muslims between Europe and Asia

nation-state

region with a single goverment and a united group of people

Pope's Rebeliion

Rebellion of the native people against the Spanish in the Spanish city of Sante Fe.

Portuguese Sailors

sailed southward along the coast of africa for years trading with natives for gold, ivory, and eventually for slaves.

Renaissance

The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history

Robert de Lasalle

First European to sail down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. Claimed areas such as the Mississippi, St. Lawrence, and Ohio Rivers for France. Also explored the Great Lakes.

European diseases

Small pox, malaria, yellow fever and other european diseases spred to the native population of America.

St. Augustine, Florida

The first permanent European settlement in the present-day United States. Settled by the Spanish in 1565.

Tenochitlan

Aztec capital that built in the center of lake texcoco

Three sister farming

system of agriculture that grew beans on corn and used squash to cover the planting mounds to retain the soil's moisture

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494 Treaty created by the pope, in which Spain and Portugal agreed to divide lands of the Western Hemisphere between them

Vasco de Gamma

Portuguese explorer who sailed from Europe to India, bringing back jewels.

Vaco Nunez Balboa

Spanish explorer who led an expedition across the Isthmus of Panama, discovering the Pacific Ocean in 1513.

Montezuma

Powerful Aztec monarch who fell to Spanish conquerors

Hernando De Soto

Spanish explorer who discovered and claimed the Mississippi River for Spain

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