the study of the ultimate characteristics of reality or existence
raised by early milesian philosphers
1. what is the nature of reality?
2. what is the nature of self?
3. how are the mind and body related to each other?
4. what are the arguments for and against the existence of God?
5. does life have a meaning?
the study of nature, scope and validity (reliability) of knowledge?
1. what is truth?
2. can we ever really know anything?
3. what are the sources of knowledge?
4. how are experience and sense perception related to knowledge?
5. how can you increase your wisdom?
the study of moral values and principles (right and wrong)
1. how ought we treat other people?
2. is there a "good life" for human beings?
3. what things are desirable and worthly to practice or pursue?
4. is there one correct universal morality or is morality relative?
5. what is the relation between moral values and religion?
other philosophical branches
political, social, aesthetics, logic and the philosophy of language
1. love and pursuit of wisdom
2. pursuit of good judgment/clarity of thought
3. attempt to make sense out of experience
the one and the many
how is it that even though there is diversity, things are similar? something in common. unity in diversity
what are things really like?
the essential nature of things.
the one fundamental in nature/the one basic reality
the one fundamental that shares & unifies that is physical
water & transformation of water
water is tangible/definite
can't be seen or touched. no defined space
pairs of opposite
reality is air = tangible, and indefinite
Milesians early scientists - 3 things
1. naturalistic = tried to explain nature, nature itself
2. relied on experience/observation. available to everyone
3. not interested in just a particular thing but what is true about all things (ex. eclipse)
reality is change/flux
philosophy = problem of change
basic reality = fire
all change is product of God's universal reason
change is a transaction --->something going in and something going out.
Heraclitus similar to Milesians
differences btw separate things but still unified
Heraclitus dissimilar to Milesians
changes that a single/individual thing undergoes but still remains tthe same/constant
the one fundamental reality is the ONE
change & diversity are mere appearances
change & diversity are mere illusions
a single, unchanging external reality & the one is external
sense perception & experience is not knowledge or truth
any talk about change/diversity leads to IS NOT
Biggest influence = real truth of things in to gained thru sense perception but it's a matter of thinkiing
Man is a measure of all things
1. skepticism = a view of knowledge (subjective)
each individual is the measure of what is true or false.
each individual is the final authority on what is true or false
experience thru sense perception which is relative to each individual
2. relativism = ethics/morality
each individual group is the measure of what is right or wrong, also final authority
values are relative.
no group can be mistaken about morality, or have a false morality