Marx and Engels' Communist Manifesto. 50+ civil wars break out across Europe. Frederick William IV of Prussia becomes king and makes a consitutional monarchy.
King Charles give up his throne to Victor Emanuel. Republic of Rome is announced by Mazzini, lasts one day. Pope flees to France and begs to get the Papal States back under his control
Prussia constitution. Prussia wants the Germans to unite, but this was stopped by Russia and Austria.
Napoleon III declares himself emperor of France, Victor Emmanuel appoints Count Camillo di Cavour his prime minister.
Crimean War: Conflict between Russia and the Ottoman Empire (plus its supporters) over the Russian expansion into the Dardenelles Straight (get navy out of Black Sea) and Constantinople (Eastern Christian Orthodox home). Russia stopped because of the Metternich System.
Siege of Sevastapol (Russian) by the French and British. Sardinia joins in Crimean War against Russia. Sends 10,000 troops.
Treaty of Paris. Russia must surrender land at Danube. Russia must acknowledge neutrality of the black sea. Russia must renounce claims of protecting Christians in the Ottoman land.
Napoleon III decides to make Austria go to war against Piedmont. Frederick William IV suffers a stroke.
Italy united under Victor Emanuel I. Russian serfs are freed. William I becomes king of Prussia.
William I is names Otto van Bismarck the prime minister of Prussia.
German-Danish War. Prussia wins. Prussia get Schleswig , North. Austria gets Holstein, South. Austrians get mad at Prussia because the Prussians march troops through Holstein. So Austria goes to the confederation. This breaks the agreement about the confederation
Italy gains Venice; Prussia defeated Austria 7 Weeks' War; Prussia then gained control of North German Foundation
Franco-Prussian War. Prussia wins. Rome is given to the Italian states, and Rome is not part of papal states
May 12, 1871
Formal treaty with Germany is signed.
3rd Republic of France is born
Garibaldi returns to Europe from his exile to South America
War commences between France and Italy vs. Prussia