Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
The science in which tactics are derived from the principles of behavior are applied to socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement in behavior.
The philosphy of a science of behavior; there are various forms of behaviorism (see methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism)
The assumption that the universe is a lawful and orderly place in which phenomena occur in relation to other events and not in a willy-nilly, accidental fashion.
The objective observation of the phenomena of interest; objective observations are "independent of the individual prejudices, tastes, and private opinions of the scientist...Results of empirical methods are objective in that they are open to anyone's observation and do not depend on the subjective belief of the individual scientist" (Zuriff, 1985, p.9)
A carefully controlled comparison of some measure of the pehnomenon of interest (the dependent variable) undertwo or more different conditions in which only one factor at a time (the independent variable) differs from one condition to another.
Experimental Analysis of Behavior (EAB)
A natural science approach to the study of behavior asa subject matter in its own right founded by B. F. Skinner; methodological features included rate of response as a basic dependent variable, repeated or continuous measurement of clearly defined response classes, within-subject experimental comparisons instead of group design, visual analysis of graphed data instead of statiscal inference relations between behavior and controlling variables in the environment over formal theory testing.
A ficticious or hypothetical variable that often takes the form or another name forthe observed phenomenon it claims to explain and contributes nothingto a functional account of understanding of the phenomenon, such as "intelligence" or "cognitive awareness" as explanations for why an organism pushes the lever when the light is on and food is available but does not push the lever when the light if off and no food is available.
A verbal statement summarizing teh results of an experiment (or group of related experiments) that describes the occurrece of the phenomena under study as a function of the operations of one or more specified and contolled variables in the experiment in which a specific change in one event (the dependent variable) can be produced by manipulating another event (the indpendent variable), and that the changein the dependent variable was unlikely the result of other factors (confounding variables); in behavior analysis expressed as b=f (x1), (x2)..., where b is the behavior and x1, x2 etc. , are the environmental variables of which the behavior is a function.
A presumed but unobserved process or entitiy (e.g. Freud's id, ego, and superego).
An approach to explaining behavior that assumes that a mental, or "inner", dimension exists that differs from a behavioral dimension and that phenomenon in this dimension either directly cause of at least mediate some forms of behavior, if not all.
A philosophical position that views behavioral events that cannot be publicly observed as outside the realm of science.
The practice of ruling out simple, logical explanations, experimentally or conceptually,before considering more complex or abstract explanations.
An attitude that the truthfulness and valididty of all scientific theroy and knowlege should be continually questioned.
A thoroughgoing formof behaviorism that attempts to understand all human behavior, including private events such as thoughts and feelings, in terms of controlling variables in the history of the person (ontogeny) and the species (phylogeny).
(a) Repeating conditions withinan experiment to determine the reliability of effects and increase internal validity (See baseline logic, prediction, verification)
(b) Repeating whole experiments to determine the generality of findings of previous experiments to other subjects, settings, and/or behaviors/ (See direct replication, external validity, systematic replication)
A systematic approach to the understanding of natural phenomena (as evidenced by description, prediction,and control) that relies on determinism as its fundamental assumption, empiricism as its primary rule, experimentation as its basic strategy, replication as a requirement for believeability, parsimonyas a value, and philosophic doubt as its guiding conscience.