Non-living components of an ecosystem; e.g. water, sunlight, nutrients
any compound that releases hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Also, a water solution that contains a surplus of hydrogen ions.
enormous bodies of air that move as a unit
a soil horizon (in the order from top to bottom--O, A, B, C); The A layer is just below the O layer. The A layer is formed of weathered rock, with some organic material; often referred to as topsoil.
Alkaline (or Base)
a basic substance; chemically, a substance that absorbs hydrogen ions or releases hydroxyl ions; in reference to natural water, a measure of the base content of the water.
an underground layer of porous rock, sand or other material that allows the movement of water between layers of nonporous rock or clay. these are frequently tapped for wells.
land fit for cultivation
The part of the mantle just below the lithosphere that is made up of partly melted rock the flows slowly and can be molded like soft plastic
A thin layer of gas surrounding the Earth
a long, relatively narrow island running parallel to the mainland, built up by the action of waves and currents and serving to protect the coast from erosion by surf and tidal surges.
any weathering that's caused by the activities of living organisms.
Living parts of an ecosystem
A soil horizon that receives the minerals and organic materials that are leached out of the A horizon
the result of chemical interaction with the bedrock that is typical of the action of both water and atmospheric gases
A soil horizon made up of larger pieces of rock that have not undergone much weathering
the finest soil, made up of particles that are less than 0.002 mm in diameter.
the transmission or conveying of something through a medium or passage, especially the transmission of electric charge or heat through a conducting medium without perceptible motion of the medium itself.
the vertical movement of a mass of matter because of heating or cooling; this can happen in both the atmosphere and Earth's mantle
air currents caused by the vertical movement of air due to atmospheric heating and cooling.
a plate boundary where two plates move toward each other
an erosion resistant marine ridge or mound consisting chiefly of compacted coral together with algal material and biochemically deposited magnesium and calcium carbonates
the way Earth's rotation makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right and winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left
the practice of alternating the crops grown on a piece of land - for example, corn one year, legumes for two years, and then back to corn.
a nearly flat plain of alluvial deposit between diverging branches of the mouth of a river, often, though not necessarily, triangular
a plate boundary at which plates are moving away from each other. This causes an upwelling of magma from the mantle to cool and form new crust.
a region of the ocean near the equator, characterized by calms, light winds, or squalls
a method of supplying irrigation water through tubes that drip water onto soil at the base of each plant
a vibration in the Earth's crust caused by the rapid release of energy along a fault
an abnormal climate event that occurs every 2 to 7 years in the Pacific Ocean, causing changes in winds, currents, and water patterns.
The process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another. erosion moves smaller particles first and hence degrades the soil to a coarser, sandier, stonier texture
the area where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean
the place where two plates abut eachother
1943 and the late 1970s,a series of technologies that increased industrialized agriculture production in India and spread worldwide
The phenomenon whereby the earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation, caused by the presence in the atmosphere of gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane.
a system of vertical and horizontal air circulation predominating in tropical and subtropical regions and creating major weather patterns.
the water from which a river rises; a source
a layer of soil
large, severe storm that forms over tropical oceans, has winds of at least 120 km/h, and loses power when it reaches land. The storm moves north, north east or north west and usually involves rain
the molten core of the earth
the rate of delivery of solar radiation per unit of horizontal surface
A high-speed, meandering wind current, generally moving from a westerly direction at speeds often exceeding 400 kilometers (250 miles) per hour at altitudes of 15 to 25 kilometers (10 to 15 miles).
when soil becomes water-logged and then dries out, and salt forms a layer on its surface.
a climate event in the eastern Pacific Ocean in which surface waters are colder than normal occurring every 4-12 years.
the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
soil composed of a mixture of sand, clay, silt, organic matter
the agricultural practice of producing or growing one single crop over a wide area
a wind system that is characterized by seasonal reversal of direction
the uppermost horizon of soil. It is primarily made up of organic material, including waste from organisms, the bodies of decomposing organisms, and live organisms.
physical (mechanical) weathering
any process that breaks rock down into smaller pieces wihtout changing the chemistry of the rock typically wind and water
the edges of a tectonic plates
When water rights are given to those who have historically used the water in a certain area
the low-rainfall region that exists on the leeward (downwind) side of a mountain range. This rain shadow is the result of the mountain range's causing precipitation on the windward side.
a bloom of dinoflagellates that causes reddish discoloration of coastal ocean waters. Certain dinoflagellates of the genus Gonyamlax produce toxins that kill fish and contaminate shellfish.
the bedrock, which lies below all of the other layers of soil
the right, as to fishing or to the use of a riverbed, of one who owns riparian land (the land adjacent to a river or stream).
the process in which soil becomes saltier and saltier until, finally, the salt prevents the growth of plants. Salinization is caused by irrigation because salts brought in with the water remain in the soil as water evaporates.
the coarsest soil, with particles 0.05-2.0 mm in diameter
soil with particle 0.002 - 0.05 mm in diameter
the atmospheric pressure conditions corresponding to the periodic warming of El Nino and cooling of La Nina.
in tectonic plates, the site at which an oceanic plate is sliding under a continental plate.
a layer in a large body of water, such as a lake, that sharply separates regions differing in temperature, so that the temperature gradient across the layer is abrupt.
The outermost shell of the atmosphere, between the mesosphere and outer space, where temperatures increase steadily with altitude.
another name for the top, or A layer
the more or less constant winds blowing in horizontal directions over the Earth's surface, as part of Hadley cells.
also known as transform faults, boundaries at which plates are moving past each other, sideways.
a cyclonic storm having winds ranging from approximately 48 to 121 km (30 to 75 miles) per hour
a process in which cold, nutrient-rich water from the deep ocean rises to the surface and replaces warm surface water
openings in Earth's crust from which molten rock, dust, ash, and hot gases flow or erupt
The area of land that is drained by a water system
countries that have a renewable annual water supply of less than 1,000 m3 per person.
countries that have a renewable annual water supply of about 1,000-2,000 m3 per person.
A local area's short term temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed, and cloud cover
The decomposition of earth rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the planet's atmosphere or biological agents.
An area that is covered all or part of the time with salt or fresh water. NOT lakes, streams, rivers, open ocean