Levels of Structural Organization / Organ Systems

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Movement, Responsiveness, Digestion, Metabolism, Excretion, reproduction, Growth.

List the Functional Characteristics necessary to maintain life in humans

Movement

change in position of the body or of a body part; motion of an internal organ. (cardio, digestive, and urinary system)

Responsiveness

is the organism's ability to sense changes taking place inside or outside the body

Digestion

Is the braking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.

Metabolism

combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes

Excretion

Is the process of removing wastes, or excreta, from the body. (Digestive system, urinary system)

Reproduction

Occurs at the cellular and the organismal level. The orginal cell divides, producing two identical daguhter cells that may then be used for body growth or repair.

Growth

Is an increase in size of a body part or the ogranism. it is usually accomplished by increasing the number of cells. However, individual cells also increse in size when not dividing.

Nutrients, Oxygen, Water, Normal Body Temperature, Appropriate Atmospheric Pressure

List the 5 survival needs of the body

Oxygen

gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells. ( 20% of the air we breathe)

Water

Accounts for 60-80% of our body weight and is the single most abundant chemical substance in the body.

Normal Body Temperature

If Chemical reactions are to continue at life-sustaining rates, 98.6 F (37 C) must be maintained. (If temperatures drops below 98.6 F metabolic reactions become slower and slower and finally stop. If above 98.6 F chemical reactions occur at frantic pace and body proteins lose their characteristic shape and stop functioning.

Appropriate Atmospheric Pressure

Is the force that air exerts on the surface of the body. Breathing and gass exchange in the lungs depends on it.

Nutrients

Chemical substances in food that your body needs to grow, to repar itself, and to supply you with energy. (Carbohydrates are the major energy fuel for body cells.

Homeostasis

Balance, or a dynamic state of equilibrium.

Nervous and endocrine systems

These two systems together control the bpdy responses to changes in the environment. Hint (homeostasis is maintained by the...)

Receptor, Control Center and Effector

All Homeostatic control mechanisms are processes involving at least three components that work together. What are they? Hint (Homeostasis)

Receptor

Is some type of sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes, called stimuli, by sending information (input) to the second component, the control center.

Control center

processes information and directs the effector to make an appropriate response. Hint ( Set point)

1) Stimulus: Produces change in variable
2) Receptor: Detects Change
3) Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to control center
4) Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to effector
5) Response: of Effector feeds back to reduce the effect of stimulus and returns variable to homeostatic level.

What are the 5 steps in homeostatic control

Negative Feed back and Positive Feedback Mechanisms

What are the two types of Homeostatic control Mechanisms?

Negative feedback mechanisms

Some substance that has gotten too high or too low (Temperature - when it goes higher than the set point so receptors notice this and sends a message to the hypothalamus then it will send a message to the blood vessels and they expand to evaporate heat and sweat and that causes your temperature to lower and go back to the set point)

Positive feedback mechanism

The result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the activity (output) is accelerated.

Homeostatic Imbalance

disturbance of homeostasis or the body's normal equilibrium

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