Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
He was a highly-valued pioneering figure: an American industrialist and philanthropist. He revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. He founded "Standard Oil". His 40 oil companies owned about 90% of the nation's pipelines and refined 84% of the nation's oil. His fortune was mainly used to create the modern systematic approach of philanthropy with foundations that had a major effect on medicine, education, and scientific research. He was a horizontal integrations (joining competing businesses in one area).
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Opened department store Marshall Field's in Chicago
Often regarded as the most unethical of the Robber Barons, he was involved with Tammany Hall and Boss Tweed early in his career. After damaging his reputation in a gold speculation that instigated the panic of Black Friday in 1869, he went on to gain control of western railroads and by 1882 had controlling interest in 15% of the country's tracks.
a railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
formed the Armour and company which the worlds largest food and chemical manufacturing company in the country. he also established the largest private refrigerator car fleet. He pioneered the principles of large scale reorganization an the refrigeration industry
United States meat-packer who began the use of refrigerated railroad cars (1839-1903)
a factory owner famous for his Model T. He developed the assembly line, which quickened production in factories, as well as the Model T.
A muckraking journalist. Wrote the book the jungle in 1906 which told about the horrible conditions of the meat packing industry. It attracted the attention of Teddy Roosevelt.
exposed the unfair practices of big business. Wrote articles about the Standard Oil Company-these articles led to demands for more controls on trusts
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
helped persuade to prohibit child labor and limit number of hours women were forced to work, founded national child labor committee
Carrie Chapman Catt
(1859-1947) A suffragette who was president of the National Woman's Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.
United States feminist (1885-1977), head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied woman's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.
United States prohibitionist who raided saloons and destroyed bottles of liquor with a hatchet (1846-1911)
1855-1926. American union leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World, and five-time Socialist Party of America Presidential Candidate. Helped lead Pullman Strike
president 1901-1909 a natrualist, was sickly as a child and stayed inside and focused on school. he loved to be outside and challange himself.Roosevelt supposrted pure food and drug law, created the Burea of Corporations to inspect business earnings, prohibited discrimination by the rairoads, and enforced the Sherman Anti-trust Act. He changed the nation's foreign policy by making it more imperialistic and adding new lands like Hawaii.
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party.
The twenty-fifth President of the United States, and the last veteran of the Civil War to be elected. By the 1880s, this Ohio native was a nationally known Republican leader; his signature issue was high tariffs on imports as a formula for prosperity, as typified by his McKinley Tariff of 1890. As the Republican candidate in the 1896 presidential election, he upheld the gold standard, and promoted pluralism among ethnic groups.
William H. Taft
27th president, known for: Admittance of New Mexico and Arizona, trust-busting, strengthening of Interstate Commerce Commission, belief in world peace. Wanted to be supreme justice
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.
described the awful living conditions of poor people in the tenements of New York City. This book help to lead to many social reforms., wrote "how the other half lived"
United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936), Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.
He was an idealistic graduate of Brown University, secretary of the Massachusetts board of education. He was involved in the reformation of public education (1825-1850). He campaigned for better school houses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, and an expanded curriculum. He caused a reformation of the public schools, many of the teachers were untrained for that position. Led to educational advances in text books by Noah Webster and Ohioan William H. McGuffey.
Johnson-Reed Immigration Act
Also known as the Immigration Act of 1924 Federal law limiting the number of immigrants that could be admitted from any country to 2% of the amount of people from that country who were already living in the U.S. as of the census of 1890.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Passed in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused Chinese population in America to decrease.
(1907) agreement in which the Japanese promised not to issue passports to laborers seeking to come to the US, in return for no Japanese segregation in the US.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
An attempt to improve the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, this law outlawed interlocking directorates (companies in which the same people served as directors), forbade policies that created monopolies, and made corporate officers responsible for antitrust violations. Benefiting labor, it declared that unions were not conspiracies in restraint of trade and outlawed the use of injunctions in labor disputes unless they were necessary to protect property.
Progressive concept by Roosevelt that would help capital, labor, and the public. It called for control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. It denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trust-busting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good.
Woodrow Wilson's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Freedom emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one.
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
This 1906 law used the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate the maximum charge that railroads to place on shipping goods.
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
Prohibition- Ban on sale, manufacture, and transport of alcoholic beverages. Repealed by 21st amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
The movement in the late 1800s to increase democracy in America by curbing the power of the corporation. It fought to end corruption in government and business, and worked to bring equal rights of women and other groups that had been left behind during the industrial revolution., A combination of small social movements like woman's suffrage, child labor, education, alcohol, or the power of large corporations. McKinley, Taft, Roosevelt, and Wilson were thought to be leaders in this kind of federal legislation
Farm-based movement of the late 1800s that arose mainly in the area from Texas to the Dakotas and grew into a joint effort between farmer and labor groups against big business and machine-based politics. The movement became a third party in the election of 1892.
Founded 1891 - called for free coinage of silver and paper money, national income tax, direct election of senators, regulation of railroads, and other government reforms to help farmers
Journalist who exposed corruption and other problems of the late 1800s and early 1900s
The name given to the political process in which the general public votes on an issue of public concern.
Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters
The act of removing an official by petition, a request by the manufacturer of a defective product to return the product (as for replacement or repair)
18th/19th Century, before industry, children worked on the land/agricultural, Before industry. Agrarian Society, before capitalism.
A society in which human labor, hand tools, and animal power are largely replaced by machines, with an economy primarily based on big factories
A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
The Homestead Strike
A strike among the Amalgamated Association of Steel Workers. When a man named Frick told Carnegie that they needed to get the Union out of their factory, they cut wages in hopes of a strike. When the workers went on strike the company hired scabs. To protect the scabs they hired 300 Pinkerton detectives. A fight broke out and 9 detectives were killed. The PA national guard was brought in.
Knights of Labor
one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories
exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices
an economic method that had other companies assigns their stocks to the board of trust who would manage them. This made the head of the board, or the corporate leader wealthy, and at the same time killed off competitors not in the trust. This method was used/developed by Rockefeller, and helped him become extremely wealthy. It was also used in creating monopolies.
a business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts
a term revived in the 19th century in the United States as a pejorative reference to businessmen and bankers who dominated their respective industries and amassed huge personal fortunes, typically as a direct result of pursuing various anti-competitive or unfair business practices. The term may now be used in relation to any businessman or banker who is perceived to have used questionable business practices or scams in order to become powerful or wealthy.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion, natural selection
political belief that all organized, coercive government is wrong in principle, and that society should be organized solely on the basis of free cooperation.
A form of monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control of every step of the manufacturing process for a single product, such as an auto maker that also owns its own steel mills, rubber plantations, and other companies that supply its parts. This allows the company to lower its costs of production and drive its competition out of business.
Within three years, the Standard Oil Trust had consolidated crude oil by buying throughout its member firms. It had slashed the number of refineries in half. Rockefeller integrated the petroleum industry horizontally by merging the competing oil companies into one giant system.
immigrants who came to the US before the 1880s; ,mostly from Great Britain, Germany, Ireland and Scandinavia; most were Protestant
After the 1880s, immigrants began to come to the US from Southern and Eastern Europe and the Pacific Rim of Asia. They spoke different languages, were Catholic and Jewish, had very different cultures, and didn't easily assimilate. They came because there were fewer jobs in Europe, the population had drastically increased, and travel was cheaper. As a result, Native born Americans felt they caused a decline in the economy as well as crime, violence, poverty.
well organized political organization that controls election results by awarding jobs and other favors in exchange for votes, A vote-gathering organization of politicians who loyally support a party boss and get the votes in their neighborhoods to support their party's candidates by fulfilling needs and providing services to constituents.
representative for or head of the political machine; gained votes for their parties by doing favors for people.
This was a nonviolent strike which brought about a shut down of western railroads, which took place against the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894, because of the poor wages of the Pullman workers. It was ended by the president due to the interference with the mail system, and brought a bad image upon unions.