A tract of land
A noble who served the lord of the next higher rank
Charlemagne's messengers who went on inspections
Depth of a vessel's keen below the water
Central Asia -> China
The Black Plague originated in this country
to fight as a pirate or warrior
An estate which included the lords house, peasants & fields for livestock and crops
means giving a specific percentage of your earnings to your local mosque or community in the Islamic faith.
the behavior of knights was governed by a code of ...
Charlemagne ruled the _____ Kingdom
The viking warrior ship was known as a ....
The Viking cargo ship was known as a ..
Charles Martel was also known as The _______
Muslims fast during the month of
Charles Martel defended the monastery at ...
The world's largest muslim community lives in
A narrow inlet between cliffs
Pope Urban II
The first crusade was ordered by ...
A solemn promise which establishes a contract between a new vassal and his lord
The first improvement that increased food production was a new, heavier _______
A skilled solider who served his lord
Black square like structure where muslims pray during their pilgrimage is the ______
People who were bound to the manor
A person who is not a Christian or does not believe in religion
Mohammed was born in the city of ...
Mayors of the Palace
During the Frankish period these government officials were known as ....
This city was known as the center of the world during the Crusades ...
The word Jihad literally means ____
This form of literature is known as _____
Islam, Judaism, Christianity
What 3 religions claim Jerusalem as their Holy City?
Name given to the Native Americans by the Vikings
Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway
Name the 4 countries that make up Scandinavia
The 2 holiest cities for Muslims are ...
25 - 35 Million (1/3 of europe)
Approx. how many people died during the black plague?
Feudalism began during the reign of _______
This Frankish king converted to Catholicism after he was victorious in battle
The Jewish people treasure Jerusalem as _________, God's own city.
During the Middle Ages the Economic system was known as .....
People who beat themselves with sticks and whips
An ______ is someone who is skilled in a specialized craft.
A civilization's _______ depends on its farmers' growing surplus food.
Early agricultural villages eventually evolved into complex societies known as ___________
A traditional story used by the priesthood to record how life was during these times was a _______
The most important alloy discovered by people of this era (very beginning of civ.) was .....
What modern country is the Huang River Valley located in?
The earliest cities that archaeologists have discovered lie in the valley of the _______ river and ________ river.
Huang, Tigris/Euphrates, Indus, Nile
4 Major River Valleys?
What did ancient Sumerian priests write their myths on?
A pyramid shaped building built by the Sumerians for worship is known as a
_________ collected laws from all over the region (fertile crescent) and created a law code covering most aspects of daily life.
The Sumerians invented the oldest known form of writing ________
The Sumerians, like the Egyptians, developed a ______ religion.
The oldest piece of literary works known to man is the epic poem of .....
The sumerians established 12 ________ ___________ in the Tigris/ Euphrates valley.
Land Between the Rivers
Mesopotamia means ...
The first empire builder in Mesopotamia was ...
Material deposited by a river that creates fertile soil ...
The _______ or city-state, was the basic political unit of Hellenic civilization.
Those people who took part in government were known as .....
The teple of the local deity was located in the center of the city atop a fortified hill or _______
Each Greek colony kept close economic ties with its mother city or
The Greeks learned coined money from the _______ around 600BC
The Greek kings eventually lost power to the _______, the landholding nobles.
Someone who seized power and ruled single handedly was/is known as a _______
In an _______, (a system of govt.) a few wealthy people hold power over a larger group of citizens.
In a _______, political power lies in the hands of all the citizens.
Sparta & Athens
What were the two most famous city-states?
This group of mysterious people, the _______, ruled most of Northern Italy.
A _______ is a community in which the people elect their leaders.
The two elected officials elected for 1 year terms who ran the day to day affairs of the city were the ....
The _______ were wealthy Latin nobles of Rome.
The majority of Rome's inhabitants were ...
Acoording to the legend of the Latin's, Rome was built by two brothers _______ and _______.
After decades of struggle the Romans finally agreed to engrave the law onto bronze tablets known as the .....
These laws (12 Tables) were displayed in the _______ for all to see.
The transfer of customs, ideas, and goods is known as ...
The most powerful cultural influence of the Romans were the _______.
The _______ emerged as the strongest Germanic group during the 400sAD
The early rulers of the Franks were known as ....
_______ vowed (and did) convert to Catholicism if he was victorious in battle.
Mayors of the Palace
By 700AD the power had been passed from the kings to the ...
Charles Martel, Tours,France
_______ _______ led the successful defense of the monastery at _______ _______.
Charlemagne's messengers were known as _______ _______.
Treaty of Verdun
Charlemagne's three grandsons signed the _______ _______ _______ to divide the Carolingian Empire.
The _______ were a fierce group of nomads from Asia.
In medieval Scandinavia to fight or to be a warrior was known as to go ...
The new political system, _______, developed after the collapse of the Carolingian Empire.
To raise capital (money) for his military enterprises Charles Martel gave tracts of land called _______ to warriors.
A noble who served a lord of the next higher rank was known as a ....
A solemn ceremony called _______ established a contract between a new vassal and his lord.
Truce of God
During Medieval times, the Church tried to limit warfare by issuing a set of decrees. Name one of them.
The behavior of knights was governed by a code of _______.
Europe centered around a system of agricultural production known as _______.
People who were bound to the manor were known as _______
A number of improvements helped to boost agriculture. Name one.
3 Field System
Another improvement in agriculture was the way farmers planted their fields. This new improved system was called the ....
Each one had their own "Coat of Arms"
How did the knights identify themselves?
What age did a nobleman's son begin training for knighthood?
For most people during the Middle Ages, the _______ _______ was the center of life.
The only way to receive grace was by taking part in the _______ or formal Church rituals.
Church ceremonies, masses, were said in _______ a language that few people understood.
In AD 520 Benedict established a monastery at ....
A monk's live was one of poverty, chastity and obedience to an _______ or monastery head.
Innocent III convened a council which laid down strict rules for stopping _______ or denial of the Church teachings.
Pope Gregory criticized the practice of _______ in which secular rulers gave the symbols of office to the bishops they had appointed.
Those people who challenged the Churches teachings were threatened with _______ or expulsion from the church.
The Church developed a court in AD 1232 known as the _______ which sought out and punished people suspected of challenging the Church.
Other Church reformers during the early AD 1200's were friars or wandering preachers.
A spanish priest named _______ organized the Dominican Friars in AD 1215.
The Pope is elected by a gathering of these high Church officials known as ...
The object of the Crusades was to recover the Holy Lands from the ...
_______ is the Holy City for 3 religions.
According to Islam, _______ ascended to heaven from the above holy city.
The _______ were Muslim people from Central Asia.
Pope Urban II
At Clermont France, _______ called for the First Crusade.
Means "God Wills It"
The Muslim Leader _______ united Muslim forces and then captured Jerusalem.
King Richard I
_______ signed a truce with the Muslims.
_______ was the capital city of the Byzantine Empire.
Italian cities such as _______ and _______ became prosperous as a result of increased trade.
Italian scholars developed a strong interest in classical writings which are/were called _______
Petrarch wrote 366 short poems or _______
_______ wrote a treatise called The Prince
The palace of the _______ or a ruling duke was a reflection of European Gothic Architecture.
_______ was the first sculptor since ancient times to cast a statue in bronze.
These hired soldiers were known as _______.
In the 1400s Florence came under the rule of the rule of the _______ family.
_______ sculptured a famous marble statue of David.
Da Vinci is the best known for his painting ...
The most famous Italian Renaissance architect was _______ who engineered/designed the dome for the Cathedral of Florence.
A _______ ruled as a dictator and used violence to maintain control.
Name one of Da Vinci's inventions.
The Protestant Reformation was begun by ...
Justification By Faith
The idea of simply having faith in God became known as ...
_______ was the Church's agent for selling indulgences.
_______ invented the movable type.
A _______ is a calling to serve God.
_______ was a swiss priest who led the Protestant movement in Switzerland.
_______ established the most powerful and influential reform group in the city of Geneva.
The theology of John Calvin was a doctrine called _______
He also established the _______ a church council of 12 elders.
A new Protestant sect in Europe known as the _______ only admitted adults to their group.
Catholicism power was threatened by _______ popularity in Northern Europe.
The _______ was a Church court based in Italy to find, try, and judge heretics.
Index of Prohibited Books
In 1543 the Church began to prohibit some books and put them onto the ....
Council of Trent
Pope Paul III organized a council of bishops in 1545 which became known as the ....
Latin Bulgrate Translation
The only acceptable version of the bible was the ....
A _______ is a training school for the proper education of priests.
During this period a new style of art and music called baroque was founded.
A priest named Ignatius Loyota founded a new religious order known as the ...
The _______ of Chinese design enabled sailors to determine their geographical direction.
The spice trade was controlled in Asia and Europe by _______ and _______ merchants.
_______ are people who make maps.
The _______ a new European ship, was "the best ship that sailed the seas."
_______ was the first country to search for spices and gold.
_______ established the first European school for navigators.
In Portugal, _______ was regarded as a national hero because he had pioneered a water route to India.
In the late 1400s Spain ended a long period of internal turmoil and wars against the Moors.
The Italian explorer _______ suggested that Columbus had reached a "New World."
In 1493 the Pope drew a _______, which was an imaginary line running down the middle of the Atlantic from the North to the South Pole.
Treaty of Tordesillas
In 1494, Portugal and Spain signed the _______ _______ _______.
Circling the globe is also known as ...
Institutions such as _______ and the courts of law set bounds to British Monarchs.
Wars of the Roses
Henry VII, the first Tudor Monarch, became king after the _______
The most powerful Tudor Monarch was ...
After Mary's death the throne was passed to her Protestant half sister _______.
Famous playwrights such as _______ flourished during the above queen's reign.
Statute of Apprentices
The _______ of 1563 declared work to be a social and moral duty.
The _______ of 1597 and 1601 made local areas responsible for their own homeless and unemployed.
For security, the English relied on the _______ to protect their island from European invaders.
The attack of the _______ made England realize the dangers of an alliance between Spain and France.
_______ was the first Stuart monarch and united Scotland and England under a common ruler.
_______ believed that the earth was round and that it rotated on its axis.
A _______ or theory explains a set of facts.
_______ was able to challenge the Catholic Church's teachings because he was a Protestant.
_______ was threatened with torture and death by the church if he did not recant many of his statements.
Francis Bacon, and English philosopher, believed that the truth only resulted from using the ...
_______ a french philosopher and mathematician believed that the truth must be only reached by reason.
In order to prove a theory _______ developed calculus an entirely new system of mathematics.
During the scientific revolution most knowledge about anatomy had come from the work of _______, an ancient roman.
_______ was the first to discover that blood circulates throughout the body.
_______ was responsible for establishing chemistry as a pure science.
Highly organized society marked by knowledge of a written language, the arts, sciences and government
A system of producing, distributing, and consuming wealth to meet peoples needs.
A traditional story that explains natural phenomena, such as the origin of people.
A form of government that uses force and power to rule people, had its roots in the city-state of Sparta
Beliefs and values that influence our action and affect our outward behavior
tracts of land with peasant laborers given by Frankish kings to warriors, courts, and local officials.
A feudal noble who served a lord of the next higher rank.
Formal instillation of someone in public office
Uncultivated land, to leave unseeded during a growing season.
depth of a vessel;s keel below water
a long, narrow, often deep inlet form the sea between steep cliffs and slopes.
muslims in spain
Who were the Moors?
What was the capital of Charlemagne's kingdom?
A document issued by a pope that bans church men from paying taxes to temporal rulers and proclaimed the sovereignty of the chruch
People found guilty of heresy...
What is the key driving force behind the Crusades?
What was society like in 11th century?
What city is considered the capital of the Renaissance?
Experiment of Physics
What is Galileo considered the "father" of?
Science of Motion
What did Galileo invent?
What was Galileo's "real love"?
What according to Galileo is the book of nature written in?
Motion and Force
What did Galileo analyze?
Where was the first telescope from?
What did Galileo find in 1610?
Name of the book which offended the church
He was nicknamed the "divine" by some of his admirers.
a technique in which you paint on fresh plastic
a standard of currency in the most of western Europe
This volcano erupted and buried Pompeii
An artificial channel for carrying water
The Olympic games were held in order to honor the god ...
A few wealthy people who hold power
Roman law was displayed to the public in the ...
Spartan life revolved around the ...
A community that elects its leaders is known as a ....
Wealthy latin nobles
The name of the 2 most famous Greek epics are _______ and the _______
Roman waste flowed into the _______ river.
The romans used a _______ to keep a road straight while under construction.
_______ is the birthplace of democracy.
People who took part in the government in Greece
The Romans fought the _______ in the first Punic War.
Mysterious group of people who ruled Northern Italy
In Greece, boys added the art of public speaking or _______ to their studies.
The majority of Rome's inhabitants were
The basic political unit of Hellenic civilization
He is considered the "Father of Modern Medicine"
People taken prisoner by the Spartans were known as ...
The Greeks learned about coined money from the ...
The Aeneid, an epic poem was written by ..
Greek kings lost power to landholding ....
To avoid persecution, Christians worshiped in _______.
The Roman Emperor _______ decided to allow the whole empire to practice religion.
This Greek philosopher founded "zoology"
The Roman Catholic Church has its heart in Rome's ....
Roman soldiers were superb fighters but poor _______
The first source of Roman Law was the _______
The Emperor _______ blamed the Christians for the Roman fire.
Roman Government was divided into two branches the _______ and the _______.
Roman magistrates who interpreted the law were known as _______.
When Roman magistrates retired they became members of the _______.
The Roman armies originally used the tactics of the Greek _______.
Belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group.
a system that provides crops with the proper water supply needed
scientist who studies the life and culture of ancient peoples by excavating ancient living sites
A person without a permanent home who moves about constantly in search of food
scientist who studies past human or prehuman civilizations
history before recorded history
a monarch with absolute power who uses it to improve society
liberator of the Jews expect by them to arrive in the future
Follower of a certain teacher or religious doctrine
poking fun at current problems and weaknesses in society
Renaissance movement influenced by ancient Greek and Roman literature that emphasized nonreligious concerns.
Pardon sold by the Catholic Church until the Renaissance that released the buyer from time in purgatory.
a career in which people believe themselves to be called on by God to serve God and their neighbors
richly ornate, flamboyant at and architecture style developed in Europe in the 1550s
a philosophical, political, or social thinker of the Enlightenment who spread new ideas based on scientific reasoning.
political theory stating that monarchs hold supreme power and are responsible for their actions to god alone.
public administrative officer who handles local government affairs
gathering of intellectuals during the Enlightenment to discuss philosophies and to engage in conversation.
an attitude of doubt
a universal moral law that can be understood by applying reason, first proposed in the 1600s
Balance of Power
a distribution of power such that no one nation is able to dominate or interfere with other nations