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Right femoral artery or Left femoral artery

If you wanted to examine a person's
coronary arteries, you would insert your
catheter in the

Right femoral vein or Left femoral vein

If you wanted to examine a person's
pulmonary arteries, you would insert your
catheter in the

Why does 1 mole of glucose weigh more than 1 mole of NaCl?

Molecular weight of glucose is greater than molecular weight of NaCl.

58 grams

If the molecular weight of NaCl is 58 grams, how much NaCl must
you add to a liter of water to make a 1 mol/L solution of NaCl?

. Which is more acidic, pH 6 or pH 8

pH 6

pH 2

. Convert 0.01 mol/liter H+ into pH

A concentration gradient.

For ions to diffuse through a membrane channel, what must exist?

It would gain water and become heavier.

What did we expect would happen to the potato slice left in water?

It would lose water and become lighter

What did we expect would happen to the potato slice left in 1 mol/L sucrose?

The pH went down because of the carbonic acid created by reaction of CO2 with water

What happened to the pH of water when you bubbled your breath through it?

It went down

What happened to the pH of water when you added acetic acid to it?

To stain tissues for microscopic study

What are hematoxylin and eosin used for?

40X

If you are using a 4X ocular lens and a 10X
objective lens, how many times magnified
is the tissue you are looking at?

Because of the one-way valves in veins

Why can blood flow in only one direction
in your veins?

More substrate  More product

Add increasing amounts of substate to a
constant amount of enzyme

More enzyme  Faster reaction

Add increasing amounts of enzyme to a
constant amount of substrate

hot

In the experiment testing the effect of temperature on an
enzymatic reaction, which reacted slowest?

warm

In the experiment testing the effect of temperature on an
enzymatic reaction,which reacted fastest

without acid

In the experiment using acid, which tube turned yellow

Pulmonary and aortic

The following valves are open during
during systole

Mitral and tricuspid

The following valves are open during diastole

Pulmonary stenosis and tricuspid regurgition

Systolic murmurs include

. Mitral and tricuspid stenosis

Diastolic murmurs include

Mitral regurgitation

Mitral valve prolapse can cause

Increase it

How will an atrial septal defect change blood flow to your lungs?

Increase it

How will a ventricular septal defect change blood flow to your lungs?

Injuring a papillary muscle

A heart attack can cause tricuspid regurgitation by

The left ventricle

Aortic regurgitation can cause enlargement of

. Left atrium

Mitral stenosis causes enlargement of

Joint pains, Skin rash, Heart valve damage ,

Rheumatic fever can cause

Bacteria

The most common cause of endocarditis is

. 5 - 15 year olds

Rheumatic fever is most common in

10% - 40%

What percentage of people who have rheumaticfever develop heart valve damage?

Is usually caused by viruses, . Causes chest pain, Can occur in otherwise healthy people , Can cause pericardial effusion ,

Pericarditis

How many valence electrons each has

Whether 2 atoms react together depends upon

Hydrogen, carbon, oxygen

The 3 most common elements in your body are

Same number of electrons and protons

An atom has the

Covalent bonds

Which is strongest?

Only molecules

Compounds are made of

Molecules of 2 oxygen atoms

In air oxygen exists as

More protons than electrons

A cation has

More electrons than protons

An anion has

Ionic

Which bonds are broken by water?

The outermost electrons in an atom

Valence electrons are

The more The more likely it is to react with other atomsenergy it has

The more likely it is to be lost in an ionic bond

The farther an electron is from the nucleus

It is a polar compound

Water is an excellent solvent because

Have an ionic end and a hydrophobic end
Have a hydrophilic end and a hydrophobic end
Are usually found in cell membranes

Phospholipids

Are small protein molecules
Are made with amino acids
Are made with peptide bonds

Peptides

DNA

The largest macromolecules are

Dissolved in cholesterol
Hydrophobic

Ions can never be

Have a positive and a negative end

Polar molecules

About ½

Water composes how much of your body weight?

They are attracted to both cations and anions
They are attracted to hydrogens that are bound to oxygen in covalent compounds
They are attracted to other polar molecules

Because water molecules have a positive and a negative end

Not polar

Hydrogens bound to carbons are usually

Depends on its sequence of amino acids
Depends on the R-groups of its amino acids
Depends on ionic bonds between R-groups
Depends on hydrophobic bonds
between R-groups

The 3-dimensional structure of a protein

A positive end and a negative end
charged end and an uncharged end
A hydrophilic end and a hydrophobic end
No charge at all

Depending on their structure molecules can have

Fat cells
Cell membranes

Hydrophobic molecules are concentrated in

Making molecules shake faster
Making molecules hit each other more frequently
Making molecules hit each other harder

Heat causes chemical reactions by

Is a long chain of glucoses
Is a polymer of glucoses

Glycogen

It cannot speed up one reaction without speeding up all the others

Heat denatures proteins

Heating is not a good way to speed up biochemical reactions because

Burning and cellular respiration create about the same amount of heat

Which creates more heat from a hamburger?

How difficult it is for 2 molecules to react

Activation energy measures

Have the right number of valence electrons
Collide with each other
Be oriented correctly when they collide
Collide with sufficient speed

In order to react 2 molecules must

Brings the molecules very close together
Sometimes twists the molecules

To make 2 molecules react, enzymes

Produce ADP from ATP
Produce phosphate from ATP

ATPases

Are negatively charged
Can change the shape of proteins

Phosphate groups

A few seconds

A cell can store enough ATP to last

Produce ADP from ATP
Produce phosphate from ATP
Bind phosphate to a macromolecule

Kinases

ATP
PO4=
ADP

Which of these can bind to macromolecules non-covalently?

Go without ATP
Get ATP from the liver
Get ATP from blood
Share ATP

Cells CANNOT

. In mitochondria and cytoplasm

ATP is made

Glucose and fatty acids

The raw materials for ATP synthesis are

Muscle and liver cells

Glycogen is found mostly in

. ATP, H, and pyruvic acid

The products of glycolysis are

Cytoplasm

Glycolysis occurs in the

Mitochondrial inner membrane

Hydrogen atoms removed from glucose during glycolysis go to the

Pyruvic acid

Which product of glycolysis goes to the mitochondrial matrix?

Pyruvic acid and fatty acids

Raw materials for the Kreb's cycle include

Go straight to the Kreb's cycle

Fatty acids

H, ATP, CO2

The products of the Kreb's cycle include

Glycolysis
Kreb's cycle

Hydrogen atoms for oxidative phosphorylation come from

Oxidative phosphorylation

Oxygen is necessary for

H2O, ATP

The products of oxidative phosphorylation are

It provides H for oxidative phosphorylation
It does not require oxygen

Glycolysis is important for cells because

H is oxidized

During oxidative phosphorylation

H is split into a proton and an electron
Oxygen combines with hydrogen

During oxidative phosphorylation

Only uses glucose

Glycolysis

ADP is phosphorylated

During oxidative
phosphorylation

30 - 35 ATPs

with the hydrogens from 1 molecule of glucose oxidative phosphorylation produces

At least 2000

How many times per day is each ADP converted to ATP?

it is used in other chemical reactions

What happens to the H+ produced during glycolysis?

4

During glycolysis how many hydrogens are removed from each glucose molecule?

Acetic acid

Before they begin the Kreb's cycle pyruvic and fatty acids are changed to a form of

ATP synthase

The enzyme that makes ATP in the mitochondrial inner membrane is

Actin

The main protein of thin filaments is

Myosin

The main protein of thick filaments is

Keeps actin separated from myosin
Moves when Ca++ enters a sarcomere

Tropomyosin

Myosin sticks to actin

When ADP and PO4= bind to a myosin head,

Myosin moves away from actin

When ATP sticks to a myosin head

Myosin head

ATP is converted to ADP and PO4= by

Mitochondria

ADP and PO4= are converted to ATP by

Stroke volume x heart rate

Cardiac output is

Increasing left ventricular filling
Increasing myocardial contractility

Stroke volume can be increased by

Increased filling

The volume of a heart chamber can be increased by

Sympathetic nervous system

Heart rate is increased by

Exercise
Sympathetic nervous system
Contraction (squeezing) veins

Blood return to the heart is increased by

Stretching heart muscle increases its contractility

Frank and Starling observed that

How much calcium is bathing the sarcomere
The number of contacts between actin and myosin
How much the sarcomeres are stretched
The sympathetic nervous system

Cardiac contractility depends on

Cardiac output decreases
Myocardial contractility decreases
Heart failure develops

If the sarcomeres are stretched too far

Veins

The majority of your blood is in

Branches, Striations, Mitochondria, Sarcomeres,

Cardiac muscle cells have

Sarcomeres

Striations are created by

From 5 L per minute to 30 L per minute

Exercise can increase resting cardiac output

Stretching of sarcomeres _2___ b. Increased cardiac output __3_ c. Increased left ventricular filling 1___

Put in order of occurrence

Myosin binds to actin _2___ b. Calcium enters the sarcomeres _1___ c. Myosin pulls actin __3__

Put in order of occurrence

. ADP and PO4++ are bound to myosin head ___1_ b. ATP binds to myosin head __4
Myosin pulls actin ____2_ d. ADP and PO4++ are released from myosin ____ 3
Myosin and actin separate ____5

Put in order of occurrence

Increased calcium is released into sarcomeres ____2_ b. Sympathetic nervous system activates __1__
Stroke volume increases __4___ d. Myocardial contractility increases ___3__

Put in order of occurrence

. Heart rate increases __2___ b. Sympathetic nervous system activates __1__
c. Cardiac output increases __3__

Put in order of occurrence

Increased cardiac output ____3_ b. Exercise _1___ c. Increased right atrial filling _2____

Put in order of occurrence

Calcium is pumped out of the sarcomeres _1___ b. Myosin separates from actin ___3_
c. Tropomyosin moves between myosin and actin __2__

Put in order of occurrence

Cardiac output decreases ___3__ b. Sarcomeres are overstretched ___1__ c. Contractility decreases _2___

Put in order of occurrence

70 mL

Normal stroke volume is about

3-fold

During exercise your pulse can increase about

Least

At rest cardiac contractility is

- charge on inside, + on outside

Cell membranes have

Inward diffusion of sodium

Depolarization of the cell membrane is caused by

Much greater inside a cell than outside

Potassium concentration is

Adjacent membrane depolarizes

Voltage-gated ion channels are opened when

Outward diffusion of potassium

Cell membrane polarization is mostly due to

The cell membrane depolarizes
Ca++ concentration is much greater
in the sarcoplasmic reticulum
Ca++ channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum

Calcium rapidly diffuses into sarcomeres because

The cell membrane

Transverse tubules are part of

Of gap junctions
Cardiac muscle is a syncytium

Depolarization passes from one cardiac
muscle cell to the next because

. K+ rapidly diffuses out of the cell

Cell membrane repolarization
occurs when

. Striations
b. Intercalated discs
c. Branching

Cardiac muscle
cells have

Desmosomes
Gap junctions

Intercalated discs contain

Calcium pumps
ATP

To move calcium back into the
sarcoplasmic reticulum requires

Increases flow of Ca++ into the sarcomeres
Increases myocardial contractility

The sympathetic nervous system

Inward diffusion of Ca++

Depolarization of the cardiac pacemaker is caused by

. Decreases the flow of Ca++ into pacemaker cells
Slows the heart rate

The parasympathetic nervous system

Outward diffusion of K+

Repolarization of the cardiac pacemakeer is caused by

Just before the ventricles

The atria contract

Purkinje fibers __4__
b. His bundle __3__
c. Pacemaker ___2_
d. AV node __1__

Put in order of action
potential conduction

Sarcomere contraction __3___
b. Inflow of calcium __2__
c. Inflow of sodium _1__

Put in order of
occurrence

Ventricle depolarization

The R-wave of the
EKG is caused by

Atrial depolarization

The P-wave of the EKG
is caused by

Action potentials __1__
b. Conduction system ____2_
c. Sarcomere contraction __5_
d. Myocardial cells _3___
e. Action potentials __4___

Put in order

Increases Ca++ inflow to the pacemaker
Increases Ca+ inflow to the sarcomeres

The sympathetic nervous system

Myocardial repolarization

The T-wave of an EKG is
caused by

Increases cardiac contractility
Increases cardiac output
Increases heart rate

The sympathetic nervous system

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