The reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes.
The site on an enzyme that attatches to a substrate
When the linkage of the enzyme and substrate causes a slight change in the enzyme's shape.
Deforms the active site so that the substrate no longer fits
The minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
The two things which denature enzymes
Temperature and pH level.
DNA is a nucleic acid made of 2 long chains of repeating sub units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is made of 3 parts: base, phosphate, and sugar.
Contains nitrogen atoms and carbon atoms and is a base.
Each complimentary base pair contains one double ringed purine and one single ringed pyrimidine.
Nitrogenous bases that have a double ring of carbon and nitogen atoms, such as a denine and guanine.
Nitrogenous bases that have a single ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms, such as cytosine and thymine.
Duplication of DNA
Move along the DNA molecule, breaking the hydrogen bonds between the complimentary nitrogenous bases and, they separate DNA strands.
They add complimentary nucleotides, they're found floating freely inside the nucleus to each of the original strands
A nucleotide sequence on a DNA molecule to which an RNA polymerase molecule binds, which initiates the transcription of a specific gene.
The process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template; particularly the process of synthesizing RNA using one strand of DNA molecule as a template.
The activation, or "turning on" of a gene that results in transcription and the production of mRNA.
An enzyme that slows the formation of RNA by using a strand of DNA molecules as a template.
A long chain of several amino acids
The rule that describes how a sequence of nucleotides, read in groups of 3 consecutive nucleotides (triplets) that correspond to specific amino acids, specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein.
The complete genetic material contained in an individual.
The portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in ply peptide chains.
In DNA, a 3 nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal.
A region of tRNA that consists of 3 bases complementary to the codon of mRNA.
A change in the nucleotide base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule.
How do mRNA and tRNA differ?
mRNA has a single, straight chain, and tRNA has a complex 2-D structure. mRNA has codons and tRNA has anticodons. mRNA carries insructions from the nucleus to cytoplasm, and tRNA brings a specific amino acid to the polypeptide chain being formed on the ribosome.
Describe the experimental evidence that showed that is DNA, not protein, which transmits hereditary information.
Cells missing RNA protein were able to transform R cells into S cells and kill the mice. However, cells missing DNA didn't transform R cells into S cells and therefore the mice survived. DNA is responsible for transformation in bacteria.
List the 5 nitrogenous bases and tell whether each is found in DNA, RNA, or both
Adenine, guanine, and cytosine are found in both DNA and RNA
Thymine is only found in DNA
Uracil is only found in RNA
How do we know that adenine is paired with thymine in DNA?
% of adenine = % of Thymine
How would the complete absence of mRNA, or tRNA affect a cell?
You would not be able to make proteins.
What are three ways in which DNA differs from RNA?
DNA has a double strand and RNA has a single.
Deoxyribose sugar and Ribose sugar.
DNA stays inside the nucleus, and RNA is found both in the nucleus and cytoplasm.
What are four properties of enzymes?
-A biological catalyst
-Acts only on a specific substrate
-A change in an enzyme's shape weakens some chemical bonds in the substrate, which is one way that enszymes reduce activation energy
-May not work if environment is changed (temperature, ect...)
Most enzymes are composed of what?