Microbiology Ch. 4--Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic/Eukaryotic Cells [part I]

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Vocab from Microbiology.

coccus

round shape

baccillus

rod shape

diplo-

prefix meaning two

strepto-

prefix meaning chain

staphylo-

prefix meaning cluster; describes cocci that divide in multiple planes to form clusters

tetrads

cocci that divide in two planes and remain in groups of four

sarcinae

cocci that divide in three planes and remain attached in cubelike groups of eight

vibrios

bacteria that look like curved rods

spirilia

bacteria that have a helical shape, like a corkscrew and move by using flagella

spirochetes

bacteria that are helical, have a flexible cell wall, and move by using axial filaments

monomorphic

bacteria that maintain a single shape

pleomorphic

bacteria that can have many shapes

glycocalyx

a viscous, gelatinous polymer made of polysaccharide or polypeptide that is made inside the cell and secreted to the cell surface

capsule

glycocalyx that is organized and firmly attached to the cell wall; often prevent phagocytosis

slime layer

glycocalyx that is unorgaized and only loosely attache to the cell wall

extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)

glycocalyx made of sugars that lets bacteria attach to various surfaces

flagella

long filamentous appendages that propel bacteria

atrichous

describes bacteria that lack flagella

monotrichous

single polar flagellum

amphitrichous

tuft of flagella at each end of the cell

lophotrichous

two or more flagella at one or both ends of the cell

peritrichous

flagella distributed over the entire cell

filament

the long outermost region of a flagellum

flagellin

the globular protein in a filament that is arranged in several intertwining chains that form a helix around a hollow core

hook

filament attaches to this, which consists of a different protein

basal body

part of a flagellum that anchors it to the cell wall and plasma membrane

motility

the ability of an organism to move by itself

run

when bacteria move in one direction

tumble

periodic, abrupt, random changes in direction

taxis

movement of bacteria toward or away form a particular stimulus

chemotaxis

taxis where stimuli are chemicals

phototaxis

taxis where stimulus is light

attractant

positive chemotactic signal

repellent

negative chemotactic signal

H antigen

flagellar protein that is useful for distinguishing amoung serovars

serovars

variations within a species of gram-negative bacteria

axial filaments (endoflagella)

bundgles of fibrils that arise at the ends of the cell beneath outer sheath and spiral around cell

fimbriae

appendages on bacterial cell used for attachment

pili

appendages on bacterial cell used for transfer of genetic material during conjugation

cell wall

complex, semirigid structure responsible for shape of the cell that prevents lysis

plasma membrane

selectively permeable membrane enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell, which is internal to the cell wall in bacteria

peptidoglycan

structural molecule of bacterial cell walls consisting of molecules of NAG and NAM

polypeptides

chain of amino acids

lysis

rupture of plasma membrane

porins

type of protein in outher membrane of gram-negative cell walls that permits passage of small molecules

O polysaccharides

sugars that function as antigens and are useful for distinguishing species of gram-negative bacteria

mycolic acid

long-chained, branched fatty acids

protoplast

gram-positive bacterium or plant cell treated to remove the cell wall

L forms

prokaryotic cells that lack a cell wall; can return to a walled state

spheroplast

gram-negative bacterium treate to damage the cell wall, resulting in a spherical cell

osmotic lysis

rupture of the plasma membrane resulting from movement of water into the cell

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