Chapter 15 Medterms

182 terms by Rachellesmith7

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brain

contained within the cranium, the center for coordinating body activities

cerebrum

largest portion of the brain, divided into left and right hemispheres. The cerebrum controls the skeletal muscles, interprets general senses (such as temperature, pain, and touch), and contains centers for sight and hearing. Intellect, memory, and emotional reactions also take place in the cerebrum.

ventricles

spaces within the brain that contain a fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. The cerebrospinal fluid flows through the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord.

cerebellum

located under the posterior portion of the cerebrum. Its function is to assist in the coordination of skeletal muscles and to maintain balance (also called hindbrain)

brainstem

stemlike portion of the brain that connects with the spinal cord. Ten of the 12 cranial nerves originate in the brainstem.

pons

literally means bridge. It connects the cerebrum with the cerebellum and brainstem.

medulla oblongata

located between the pons and spinal cord. It contains centers that control respiration, heart rate, and the muscles in the blood vessel walls, which assist in determining blood pressure.

midbrain

most superior portion of the brainstem

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

clear, colorless fluid contained in the ventricles that flows through the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord. It cushions the brain and spinal cord from shock, transports nutrients, and clears metabolic waste.

spinal cord

passes through the vertebral canal extending from the medulla oblongata to the level of the second lumbar vertebra. The spinal cord conducts nerve impulses to and from the brain and initiates reflex action to sensory information without input from the brain.

meninges

three layers of membrane that cover the brain and spinal cord

dura mater

tough outer layer of the meninges

arachnoid

delicate middle layer of the meninges. The arachnoid membrane is loosely attached to the pia mater by weblike fibers, which allow for the subarachnoid space.

pia mater

thin inner layer of the meninges

nerve

cordlike structure made up of fibers that carries impulses from one part of the body to another. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves

ganglion(pl. ganglia)

group of nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system

glia

specialized cells that support and nourish nervous tissue. Some cells assist in the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid and others assist with phagocytosis. They do not conduct impulses. Three types of glia are astroglia, oligodendroglia, and microglia. (also called neuroglia)

neuron

a nerve cell that conducts nerve impulses to carry out the function of the nervous system. Destroyed neurons cannot be replaced.

cerebell/o

cerebellum

cerebr/o

cerebrum, brain

dur/o

hard, dura mater

encephal/o

brain

gangli/o, ganglion/o

ganglion

gli/o

glia, gluey substance

mening/o, meningi/o

meninges

myel/o

spinal cord

neur/o

nerve

radic/o, radicul/o, rhiz/o

nerve root (proximal end of a peripheral nerve, closest to the spinal cord)

esthesi/o

sensation, sensitivity, feeling

ment/o, psych/o

mind

mon/o

one, single

phas/o

speech

poli/o

gray matter

quadr/i

four

-iatrist

specialist, physician

iatry

treatment, specialty

ictal

seizure, attack

paresis

slight paralysis

cerebellitis

inflammation of the cerebellum

cerebral thrombosis

pertaining to the cerebrum, abnormal condition of a clot (blood clot in a blood vessel of the brain). (Onset of symptoms may appear from minutes to days after an obstruction occurs; a cause of ischemic stroke)

duritis

inflammation of the dura mater

encephalitis

inflammation of the brain

encephalomalacia

softening of the brain

encephalomyeloradiculitis

inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and nerve roots

gangliitis

inflammation of a ganglion

glioblastoma

tumor composed of developing glial tissue (the most malignant and most common primary tumor of the brain)

glioma

tumor composed of the glial tissue (glioma is used to describe all primary neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord)

meningioma

tumor of the meninges (benign and slow growing)

meningitis

inflammation of the meninges

meningocele

protrusion of the meninges (through a defect in the skull of vertebral arch)

meningomyelocele

protrusion of the meninges and spinal cord (through a neural arch defect in the vertebral column) (also called myelomeningocele)

mononeuropathy

disease affecting a single nerve (such as carpal tunnel syndrome)

neuralgia

pain in a nerve

neurasthenia

nerve weakness

neuritis

inflammation of a nerve

neuroarthropathy

disease of nerves and joints

neuroma

tumor made up of nerve (cells)

neuropathy

disease of the nerves (peripheral)

poliomyelitis

inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord. (This infectious disease, commonly referred to as polio, is caused by one of three polio viruses.)

polyneuritis

inflammation of many nerves

polyneuropathy

disease of many nerves (most often occurs as a side effect of diabetes mellitus, but may also occur as a result of drug therapy, critical illness such as sepsis, or carcinoma; exhibiting symptoms of weakness, distal sensory loss, and burning)

radiculitis

inflammation of the nerve roots

radiculopathy

disease of the nerve roots

rhizomeningomyelitis

inflammation of the nerve root, meninges, and spinal cord

subdural hematoma

pertaining to below the dura mater, tumor of blood (hematoma, translated literally, means blood tumor; however, a hematoma is a collection of blood resulting from a broken blood vessel)

Alzheimer disease

disease characterized by early dementia, confusion, loss of recognition or persons or familiar surroundings, restlessness, and impaired memory

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

progressive muscle atrophy caused by degeneration and scarring of neutrons along the lateral columns of the spinal cord that control muscles (also called Lou Gehrig disease)

Bell palsy

paralysis of muscles on one side of the face, usually a temporary condition. Signs include a sagging a mouth on the affected side and nonclosure of the eyelid

cerebral aneurysm

aneurysm in the cerebrum

cerebral embolism

an embolus (usually a blood clot or a piece of atherosclerotic plaque arising from a distant site) lodges in a cerebral artery, causing sudden blockage of blood supply to the brain tissue. A common cause of cerebral embolism, a type of ischemic stroke, is atrial fibrillation

cerebral palsy

condition characterized by lack of muscle control and partial paralysis, caused by a brain defect or lesion present at birth or shortly after

dementia

cognitive impairment characterized by a loss of intellectual brain function. Patients have difficulty in various ways, including difficulty in performing complex tasks, reasoning, learning, and retaining new information, orientation, word finding, and behavior. Dementia has several causes and is not considered part of normal aging.

epilepsy

condition characterized by recurrent seizures; a general term given to a group of neurologic disorders, all characterized by abnormal electrical activity in the brain

hydrocephalus

increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain, which can cause enlargement of the cranium in infants

intracerebral hemorrhage

bleeding into the brain as a result of a ruptured blood vessel within the brain. Symptoms vary depending on the location of the hemorrhage; acute symptoms include dyspnea, dysphagia, aphasia, diminished level of consciousness, and hemiparesis. The symptoms often develop suddenly. Intracerebral hemorrhage, a cause of hemorrhagic stroke, is frequently associated with high blood pressure.

multiple sclerosis (MS)

degenerative disease characterized by sclerotic patches along the brain and spinal cord. Signs and symptoms are variable and fluctuate over the course of the disease. More common symptoms include fatigue, balance and coordination impairments, numbness, and vision problems.

Parkinson disease

chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Signs and symptoms include resting tremors of the hands and feet, rigidity, expressionless face, and shuffling gait. It usually occurs after the age of 50 years.

sciatica

inflammation of the sciatic nerve, causing pain that travels from the thigh through the leg to the foot and toes; can be caused by injury, infection, arthritis, herniated disk, or from prolonged pressure on the nerve from sitting for long periods

shingles

viral disease that affects the peripheral nerves and causes blisters on the skin that follow the course of the affected nerves (also called herpes zoster)

stroke

occurs when there is an interruption of blood supply to a region of the brain, depriving nerve cells in the affected area of oxygen and nutrients. The cells cannot perform and may be damaged or die within minutes. The parts of the body controlled by the involved cells will experience dysfunction. Speech, movement, memory, and other CNS functions may be affected in varying degrees. Ischemic stroke is a result of a blocked blood vessel. Hemorrhagic stroke is a result of bleeding. (also called cerebrovascular accident [CVA] or brain attack

subarachnoid hemorrhage

bleeding caused by a ruptured blood vessel just outside the brain (usually a ruptured cerebral aneurysm) that rapidly fills the space between the brain and skull (subarachnoid space) with blood. The patient may experience an intense, vomiting, and neck pain (a cause of hemorrhagic stroke)

transient ischemic attack (TIA)

sudden deficient supply of blood to the brain lasting a short time. The symptoms may be similar to those of stroke, but with TIA the symptoms are temporary and the usual outcome is complete recovery. TIAs are often warning signs for eventual occurrence of a stroke

ganglionectomy

excision of a ganglion (also called gangliectomy)

neurectomy

excision of a nerve

neurolysis

separating a nerve (from adhesions)

neuroplasty

surgical repair of a nerve

neurorrhaphy

suture of a nerve

neurotomy

incision into a nerve

radicotomy, rhizotomy

incision into a nerve root

cerebral angiography

radiographic imaging of the blood vessels in the brain (after an injection of contrast medium)

CT myelography

process of recording (scan) the spinal cord (after an injection of a contrast agent into the subarachnoid space by lumbar puncture. Size, shape, and position of the spinal cord are nerve roots are demonstrated.)

electroencephalogram (EEG)

record of the electrical impulses of the brain

electroencephalograph

instrument used to record the electrical impulses of the brain

electroencephalography

process of recording the electrical impulses of the brain

computed tomography of the brain (CT scan)

process that includes the use of a computer to produce a series of brain tissue images at any desired depth. The procedure is painless and particularly useful in diagnosing brain tumors

magnetic resonance imaging of the brain or spine (MRI scan)

a noninvasive technique that produces sectional images of soft tissues of the brain or spine through a strong magnetic field. Unlike a CT scan, MRI produces images without use of radiation. It is used to visualize tumors, edema, multiple sclerosis, and herniated disks

positron emission tomography of the brain (PET scan)

nuclear medicine imaging technique with a radioactive substance that produces sectional imaging of the brain to examine blood flow and metabolic activity. Images are projected on a viewing screen.

evoked potential studies (EP studies)

a group of diagnostic tests that measure changes and responses in brain waves elicited by visual, auditory, or somatosensory stimuli. Visual evoked response (VER) is a response to visual stimuli. Auditory evoked response (AER) is a response to auditory stimuli.

lumbar puncture (LP)

insertion of a needle into the subarachnoid space usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae. It is performed for many reasons, including the removal of cerebrospinal fluid for diagnostic purposes (also called spinal tap)

anesthesia

without (loss of) feeling or sensation

aphasia

condition of without speaking (loss or impairment of the ability to speak)

cephalalgia

pain in the head (headache) (also called cephalgia)

cerebral

pertaining to the cerebrum

craniocerebral

pertaining to the cranium and cerebrum

dysphasia

condition of difficulty speaking

encephalosclerosis

hardening of the brain

gliocyte

glial cell

hemiparesis

slight paralysis of half (right or left side of the body)

hemiplegia

paralysis of half (right or left side of the body); stroke is the most common cause of hemiplegia

hyperesthesia

excessive sensitivity (to stimuli)

interictal

(occurring) between seizures or attacks

intracerebral

pertaining to within the cerebrum

mental

pertaining to the mind

monoparesis

slight paralysis of one (limb)

monoplegia

paralysis of one (limb)

myelomalacia

softening of the spinal cord

neuroid

resembling a nerve

neurologist

physician who studies and treats diseases of the nerves (nervous system)

neurology

study of nerves (branch of medicine dealing with diseases of the nervous system)

panplegia

total paralysis (also spelled pamplegia)

paresthesia

abnormal sensation (such as burning, prickling, or tingling sensation, often in the extremities; may be caused by nerve damage or peripheral neuropathy)

postictal

(occuring) after a seizure or attack

preictal

(occurring) before a seizure or attack

quadriplegia

paralysis of four (limbs)

subdural

pertaining to below the dura mater

afferent

conveying toward a center (for example, afferent nerves carry impulses to the central nervous system)

ataxia

lack of muscle coordination

cognitive

pertaining to the mental processes of comprehension, judgement, memory, and reason

coma

state of profound unconsciousness

concussion

injury to the brain caused by major or minor head trauma; symptoms include vertigo, headache, and possible loss of consciousness.

conscious

awake, alert, aware of one's surroundings

convulsion

sudden, involuntary contraction of a group of muscles; may be present during a seizure

disorientation

a state of mental confusion as to time, place, or identity

dysarthria

the inability to use speech that is distinct and connected because of a loss of muscle control after damage to the peripheral or central nervous system

efferent

conveying away from the center (for example, efferent nerves carry information away from the central nervous system)

gait

a manner or style of walking

incoherent

unable to express one's thoughts or ideas in an orderly, intelligible manner

paraplegia

paralysis from the waist down caused by damage to the lower level of the spinal cord

seizure

sudden surge of abnormal electrical activity in the brain, resulting in involuntary body movements or behaviors

shunt

tube implanted in the body to redirect the flow of a fluid

syncope

fainting or sudden loss of consciousness caused by lack of blood supply to the cerebrum

unconsciousness

state of being unaware of surroundings and incapable of responding to stimuli as a result of injury, shock, illness, or drugs

psychiatrist

a physician who studies and treats disorders of the mind

psychiatry

specialty of the mind (branch of medicine that deals with the treatment of mental disorders)

psychogenic

originating in the mind

psychologist

specialist of the mind

psychology

study of the mind (a profession that involves dealing with the mind and mental processes in relation to human behavior)

psychopathy

(any) disease of the mind

psychosis (pl. psychoses)

abnormal condition of the mind (major mental disorder characterized by extreme derangement, often with delusions and hallucinations

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