"On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres." New theories: motionless sun in center of universe, earth rotates around sun in circular orbit and moon rotates around earth. Shy about his beliefs.
Observed night sky and rejected Ptolemaic system, but couldn't accept the fact that the eath moved. Kepler became his assistant.
3 Laws of Planetary Motion:
1. Elliptical, not circular, orbit
2. Changing speeds of planets
3. Revolution times get faster/slower
"The Starry Messenger." One of the first to use telescope, which started a new age in observation. Discovered: craters on the moon, moons of Jupiter, phases of Venus, sunspots, inertia, change in motion. Forced to denounce his findings by church. "but it does move..."
"Principia." Defined laws of gravity. His laws explained motion in the universe.
Focused on dosage of medicines and used the saying "like cures like." Macroism-microism philosophy. Father of modern medicine.
"On the Fabric of the Human Body." Books explained and illustrated his hands-on methods that corrected Galen's previously accepted errors.(except 2 blood systems)
"On the Motion of the Heart and Blood." Corrected all of the errors of Galen's that Vesalius did not catch.
(woman) criticized the view that humans could be masters of nature through science. Wrote a number of works.
(woman) wrote and drew a number of books about the stages of growth of plants and insects
Married to Kirch, Germany's leading astronomer and became his apprentice. Corresponded with scholars and applied for a teaching post but was denied.
"Discourse on Method." Father of modern rationalism. Began with doubt, then defined the difference between mind and matter (dualism). Hugely influencial on Western thought.
Sir Francis Bacon
"The Great Restoration." Rejected many scientists teachings. Beliebed that humans could understand the natural world, but the had proceeded incorrectly thus far. More practical than scientific.
Pantheism (belief that God is in humans and nature). Read Descartes, but could not accept seperation of God from universe.
"Pensees." Sought to keep science and religion united.
English Royal Society
Investigated technological improvements. Focused on mechanics and astronomy. Set a public example that science should be a cooperative venture.
French Royal Academy
Controlled by state (Louis XIV). Forced to continue practical work to benefit king and state.
Journal de Savants
French scientific news published weekly. Format attracted both scientists and pulic attention.