An organism that uses glucose for carbon and sulfur compounds for energy is a:
Which of the groups of microbes below is most metabolically diverse in terms of nutritional classes?
Which of the oxygen species below is not toxic to cells?
Hydroxyl radicals are neutralized in the cell by the action of:
Which element listed below is often growth limiting in the environment?
Vitamins are examples of
Growth Factors and Antioxidants
A microbes optimum growth temperature is generally closer to:
The maximum growth temperature
An organism living at the bottom of the ocean would have to be:
Barophilic:Organisms that live under extreme pressure.
Psychrophilic: Requires temperatures below 20 C.
Anaerobic: Oxygen fearing
Biofilms are best described as:
Complex relationships showing features of synergy and symbiosis
Of the methods used to isolate CFUs, which one would allow you microaerophilic (require low levels of oxygen) microbes?
Pour plate (series of dilution) and streak plate incubated in a candle jar.
On what type of media would you try to grow an organism whose nutritional requirements where not known?
Complex Media (contains a variety of growth factors)
On what type of media would you try to grow and differentiate between two species of digestive tract microorganisms?
Selective Media (contains substances that favor the growth or inhibit the growth of particular microorganisms allowing you to distinguish between two similar microbes)
What type of special culture technique would need to be employed to propagate viruses in the laboratory?
Cell Culture (Viruses require a host for nutrients and reproduction. They must be cultured within in a living cell or tissue sample; artificial media is insufficient)
To preserve a bacterial specimen for many years, it should be stored:
As a lyophilized sample (think freeze drying! Water is removed through intense vacuum.)
If a population of bacteria is growing in a sewer line with a continous flow of wastes, which phase of the growth cycle will the population remain in most of the time?
Log Phase (most actively growing; they are constantly being supplied with nutrient source for growth)
In which phase of the growth curve are antimicrobial treatments most successful?
Log Phase (antimicrobial treatments inhibit the growth or organisms)
A person with an active infection begins to take an antibiotic. The drug should push the bacterial population into which phase of the growth curve?
Stationary Phase (New organisms are being produces at the same rate at which they are dying. )
Which of the following techniques would best determine the number of living cells in a culture?
Viable plate count (key word is living)
Organisms must acquire _____ from the environment to provide energy and building materials for anabolism.
Facultative anaerobes ___ have to have mechanisms to protect against the eddects of toxic oxygen species. An example of faculative anaerobe is ___.
do; E Coli (PS!!! E. [or Escherichia] is the genus name and coli would be the specific epithet! Chp. 4!!)
Nitrogen gas in the atmosphere is turned into useful biological forms by prokaryotes performing this process:
Nitrogen Fixation (some bacteria reduce nitrogen gas to ammonia)
______ grow best at temperatures lower that 15 C; thermophiles, on the other hand, grow best above _____ C.
Psychrophiles (cause they are psycho and love to freeze!); 45 C. (thats 113 F.. AKA AZ in August.. I guess we are thermophiles)
Fungi are generally ______.
Acidophiles (they grow best in acidic environments)
Microbes can be grown in liquid ____ cultures or as ______ on solid agar plates.
The most common isolation technique is used in the microbiology laboratory is the ____ method.
Streak Plate (safe, easy, and inexpensive)
_____ cultures are designed to increase the population of a desired microbes that is present in a sample in very small numbers.
Enrichment (bulks them up!)
A bacterial culture starts with five cells. Tha bacteria reproduce every 35 minutes. At the end of 6 hours, you would have ______ cells in your culture.
6300 + (6 H ( 360 mins) / 35 = they reproduce 10 x an hour... ) formula?
______is a(n) _____ method for estimating the growth of a microbial population in broth that uses spectrophotometry.