Literary Bible

Created by BelvinT 

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104 terms

Allegory

the representation of ideas or moral principles by means of symbolic characters, events, or objects

Alliteration

repetition of a consonant sound to create rhythm and aid memory

Allusion

a brief reference to a historical or literary person, place, object, or event

Analogy

comparison of 2 similar thigs to suggest that if they are alike in some respects, they are probably alike in other ways as well

anecdote

a short narrative tht tells the particulars of an interesting and/or humorous event

antagonist

person or thing that poopses the protagonist or hero of a story

apostrophe

a figure of speech where someone (usually absent or dead), an object, some abstract quality, or a nonexistent person is directly addressed as though present and real

blank verse

unrhymed, but otherwise regular verse, usually iambic pentameter

caricature

representation or imitation of a person's physical or personality traits that are so exaggerated they become comic or absurd

characterization

creation of imaginary persons so that they seem lifelike

cliche

a word or phrase that is so overused that it is no longer effective in most writing situations

climax

a high point or turning point in a place or literature, the point at which the rising action reverses and becomes the falling action of denouement

coherence

parts of a composition should be arranged in a logical and ordeerly manner so that the meaning and ideas are clear and intellgible

conflict

problem or struggle that the characters have to solve or some to grips with by the end of the story

connotation

emotions/feelings that surround a word; they may be negative, neutral, positive, depending on their context

context

enviroment of a word , the words that surround a partiular word and help to determine it's meaning

couplet

in poetry (verse), two consecutive lines that rhhyme

critique

critical examination of a work of art to determine how it measures up to established standards

denotation

literal or basic meaning of a word

denouement

resolution or outcome of a play or story

dialogue

conversation between two or more characters in a work of literature

diction

writer's choice of words based on their clarity and effectiveness

drama

story told by actors who play the characters and reveal the conflict throught their actions and dialogue

editorial

short essay in a newspaper or magazine that expresses the opinion of the writer

elegy

formal poen that mediates on a solemn theme

empathy

when you put yourself in someone elses place and imagine how that perwwson must feel

epic

long narrative poem about the deeds of a great hero that reflects the values of the society that produced it

epitaph

short verse or poem in memory of someone

essay

piece of prose that expresses an individuals point of view; it is a series of closely related paragraphs that discuss a single topic

eulogy

formal speech praising a person or thing

euphemism

when you replace one word or phrase for another in order to avoid being offensive

exposition

intro section of a play or novel that provides backround info on setting, characters, and plot

fable

brief tale that usesanimals as charachters and teaches a moral lesson

falling action

last section of a play or story that works out the decision arrived at during the climax

farce

literature that has essentially one purpose, to make the audience laugh; farce often depends less on plat and character than on improbable situations

figurative language

expressive languagage that is written to create a special effect or feeling

flashback

insetion of a scene or event that took place in the past for the purpose of making something int he present more clear

foil

term is applied to any person who, through contrast, underscores the distinctive characteristics of another

foreshadowing

suggestion or hint of events to come later in a literary work

free verse

verse written without rhyme, meter, or regular rhythm

genre

a french word that means type or form of literature

hamartia

the error, frailty, mistaken judgement, or misstep through which the fortunes of a tragic hero are reversed

heroic couplet

two consecutive lines of rhymed verse writen in iambic pentameter

historical fiction

fiction whoose setting is in some time other than that in which it is written

hyperbole

type of figurative language that makes an overstatement for the purpose of emphasis

iambic pentameter

line of poetry that contains fice iambic feet; an iamb is a foot consisting of an unaccented syllable followed by an accented syllable

imagery

use of descriptive words or phrases to created vived mental pictures in the minds of the reader, often appealing to sight, sound, taste, or smell

irony:dramatic

when the audience know more than the characters on stage , which creates tension

irony:situational

a situation or event that is th eopposite of what is or might be expected

irony:verbal

expression of an attitude or intention thatis the opposite of what is actually meant

legend

a narrative or tradition handed down from the past; distinguished from a myth by having more hostorical truth and perhaps less of the supernatural

limerick

form of light verse that follows a definite rhyme scheme where the first, second, and fifth linds rhyme and the third and fourth lines rhyme (patterns may vary)

lyric

short poem that expresses rthe personal feelings and thoughts of a single speaker

malapropism

when two words become jumbled in the mind of a speaker because they resemble each other and he/she uses the wrong one

melodrama

an exaggerated, sensational form of drama which is intended to appeal to the emotions of the audience

metaphor

comparison of two dissimilar things

direct metaphor

when the writer directly states both of the things being compared

indirect metaphor

when the writer states of the the things and the reader must infer the other

meonymy

the substitution of an obect closely associated with a word for the word itself

mood

feeling a piece of literature arouses in the reader

motif

recurring ideas, images, and actions that tend to unify a work

myth

a traditional story that presents supernatural beings and situations that attempt to explain and/or interpret natural events

narrator

the person who is telling the story

novel

covering a wide range of prose materials which have two common characteristics: they are fictional and lengthy

objective

when a writer makes every attempt to simply present the facts, without opinion or bias

onomatopoeia

type of figurative language in which words sound like the things they name

oxymoron

a self-contadictory combination of words ( usually paired )

parable

short descriptive story whose purpose is to illustrate a lesson or moral

paradox

a statement that at first seems contradictory, but infact, reveeals a truth

parody

when a writer imitates an already existing form for the purpose of humor

personification

a type of figurative language that gives animate ( living ) characteristics to inamate ( nonliving ) things

plot

the action of a story; all of the events that occur from the beginning to the end

point of view

from whose angle the story is being told

first person

when a character in the story tells the story using "I" or "We" ( NF or F )

second person

used in nonfiction, promarily for the purpose of writing instructions or directions, using "you" ( NF )

third person

whe the marrator is tellikng the events from "outside" the story from a neutral or unemotional view point, using "he" "she", etc. ( F or NF )

omniscient

when the narrator can see into the hearts and minds of more than one of the characters in the story ( F )

limited omniscient

when the narrator can see into the mind and heart of only one of the characters in the story ( F or NF )

protagonist

the main character in a work; the action revolves around this person and against the antagonist ( opposing force )

pseudonym

means "false name" and is used by some writers instead of their real name

pun

word or phrase which has a "double meaning" as intended by the writer; often these words sound the same ( or nearly the same ) but have different meanings

repetition

repeating a word or group of words for emphasis or effect

resolution

portion of a play or story when the problem is solved

rhetorical question

a question asked only for effect or to make a statement, but not to get an answer

rising action

portion of a play after the initial incident ( introduction of the conflict ) where the action is complicated by the opposing forces ending with the climax; in a novel, play, or movie, the rising action moves the story along and the plot usually becomes more complicated

satire

type of writing that usues humor, irony, or wit to make a point

setting

the time and place of a story, which usually plays an important role in the events that occur

short story

a relatively brif fictional narrative in prose ( 5,000-12,00 words )

simile

a comparison using "like" or "as"

soliloquy

long speech given by a character alone on stage that reveals his/her innermost thoughts and feelings

sonnet

poem of fourteen lines written in iambic pentameter that follows one of several rhyme schemes

stereotype

this is a pattern or form which does not change; this term is applied to oversimplified mental pictures or judgments

structure

this is the orangization or planned framework that a writer creates for his/her piece of litrature

style

this refers to how the author writes ( form ) rather than what he/she writes ( content )

subjective

when a writer inserts opinion or bias into the piece of writing

symbolism

symbol is something that stands for something larger than itself

synecdoche

figure of speech in which a part represents the whole or when the whole represents the part

syntax

arrangement of words within a phrase, clause or sentence. Factors such as the type of sentence, th euse of punctuation, and the use of language patterns can all contribute to an effective use of syntax.

theme

a statement of the central idea of a piece of writing

tone

attitude of the author torward his/her subject and audience

classical tragedy

dramatic work where a noble hero's tragic flaw causes him/her to break a moral law that leads to his/her downfall

modern tragedy

dramatic work where the hero is often an ordinary person who faces circumstances with dignity and courage of spirit

unity

piece of writing is organized so that all of its parts belong and are well integrated

writer's voice

writer's awareness and effective use of such elements as diction, tone, syntax, unity, coherence and audience to create a clear and distinct "personality of the writer"

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