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List the top 4 most frequently occurring chemical elements in living things.

CHON (Carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen)

List the next 5 important elements needed by living organisms.

SPICKS (Sulfur, Phosphorus, Iron, Calcium, Sodium)

A component of some amino acids

Sulfur

A component of nucleotides in DNA/RNA

Phosphorus

has a role in oxygen transport

Iron

has a role in nerve impulses in animals, maintaining metabolism with bacteria, osmotic balance in most plants.

Sodium

What property allows a water bug to float on the surface of the water, and allows plants to transport water through their tissues.

Cohesive Property

What property allows osmosis and the transport of the nutrients around the body.

Solvent Property

Using water as a coolant-Body heat being absorbed by the water molecules evaporating to reduce body temperature.
Or how ponds, lakes or oceans have less variation in temperature.

Thermal Property

Any element that contains carbon except when it is paired with oxygen.

Organic Compound

.

Amino Acid

.

Fatty Acid

Glucose, Galactose and Fructose are

Monosaccharides

Maltose, Lactose, and Sucrose are

Disaccharides

Starch, Glucose, and Cellulose are

Polysaccharides

Respiratory Substrate in animals?

Glucose

Insoluble storage polymer in animals?

Glycogen

Milk sugar in animals?

Lactose

Fruit Sugar in plants?

Fructose

Soluble, metabolically inactive,transported in phloem sap in plants?

Sucrose

Insoluble, structural fibers of plant cell walls in plants?

Cellulose

Have the function of energy storage, thermal insulation, and buoyancy.

Lipids

In Energy Storage
*Easily digested.
*Energy released faster.
*Soluble in water.
*Easy to move and store.

Carbs

In Energy Storage
*More energy per gram
*Insoluble in water (No osmosis problems)
*More Oxygen per molecule
*Only good for low energies

Lipids

What are the two types of nucleic acids?

Ribose and deoxyribose

Three components of a DNA building block?

Phosphate, Ribose sugar, base.

State the names of the four bases in DNA

CTAG (Cytosine, thymine, adenine Guanine)

*Amino acids in a polypeptide chain

1 Structure

*Formed by hydrogen bonds
*Helix shape

(2 Structure) Alpha Helix

*Folding shape
*Polypeptide chain more stretched out.
*sheet has twists that increase strength.

(2 Structure) Beta Pleated Sheet

What connects the alpa and beta helix, often active sites of enzymes?

(2 Structure) Open Loops

*Polypeptides fold
*Hydrogen and Ionic Bonds

3 Structure

*Tertiary Polypeptides fold together

4 Structure

*Water soluble
*Long and narrow
*Strength and support in tissues
*Collagen
*Most common in animals
*Keratin in hair and nails

Fibrous

*Near soluble
*Pigment and Transport proteins
*Immune system
*Antibodies like haemoglobin and Immunoglobulin

Globular

.

Polar Amino Acid

.

Non-polar Amino Acid

4 functions of protiens

Hormone, Immunoglobulin, Enzyme, Gas Transport

bring about the uptake of glucose across the cell membrane and the storage of glucose as the insoluble polymer glycogen.

Hormone

Produced by the plasma cells in an immune response to an infectious antigen.

Immunoglobulin

reduce the energy of activation and allows a biochemical reaction to reach equilibrium more quickly.

Enzyme

Haemoglobin molecules transport oxygen to respiring tissues.

Gas Transport

Metabolic pathways: Each stage has it's own ____.

Enzyme

Metabolic pathways: _____ Pathways breakdown molecules.

Catabolic

Metabolic pathways:____ pathways build up molecules.

Anabolic

Glycolysis is what kind of metabolic pathway?

Chain

Krebs cycle and Calvin cycle are what kind of metabolic pathway?

Cyclic

replaced the "Lock and Key" hypothesis

Induced-Fit Model

These reactions use enzymes to lower the activation energy, releasing more energy than the activation energy.

Exergonic Reactions

When an inhibitor binds to the active site and blocks the substrate. If there are too many substrates, more inhibitors will be made.

Competitive

Reduces rate of reaction, but does not bind to active site, changes shape of active site.

Non-competitive

Substances that reduce or completely stop the action of an enzyme.

Inhibitor

If there is an excess of end product, then it switches off until it is balanced again.

End-Product

Parts of a molecule that contain _____ amino acids are hydrophilic and can exist in contact with water.

Polar

______ amino acids allow the protein to site within the phospholipid bilayer.

Non-polar

The lining of the channel itself has _____ amino acids to allow the diffusion of charged molecules and ions.

Polar

_____ amino acids within the active site of an enzyme allow a chemical interaction between the substrate and the enzyme to reduce the activation energy.

Polar

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