apush vocab 28-30

121 terms by mar-star

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henry demarest lloyd

He wrote the book "Wealth Against Commonwealth" in 1894. It was part of the progressive movement and the book's purpose was to show the wrong in the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company., One of the earliest muckrakers who wrote a series of articles in 1881 for the Atlantic monthly attacking the practices of the Standard Oil Company and the railroads.

thorstein veblen

economist, wrote Theory of the Leisure Class, condemned conspicuous consumerism, where status is displayed and conveyed through consumption., a renowned economist; argued that businessmen were motivated by greed, that the economic system did not regulate itself by natural laws, and that government experts should develop policies for giving direction to the economy

jacob riis

A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890, photographer, journalist, muckraker

theodore dreiser

American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms., Wrote Sister Carrie which traces the downward journey of an innocent country girl who is corrupted by urban pleasures and becomes a prostitute., United States novelist (1871-1945), wrote novels depicting workers as being brutalized by greedy business owners

muckraker

one who spreads real or alleged scandal about another (usually for political advantage), a type of writer who motivated the public to attack political and social corruption, a group of people who only looked at the negative side of things during the progressive movement.

lincoln steffens

Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities., A writer for McClure's who wrote a series of articles titled The Shame of the Cities. He unmasked in his article the alliance between big business and municipal government., A muckraker journalist who wrote, in 1902, The Shame of the Cities which focused on corruption in the city government. It revealed how many politicians admitted to being paid off and accepting bribes, which weakened the political power of average Americans, especially laborers.

ida tarbell

A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil., Famous muckraker who exposed the monopolistic practices of John D. Rockefeller in her book The History of the Standard Oil Company, female, , author of History of the Standard Oil Company (1904) which documented how John D. Rockefeller eliminated competitors with unfair business practices

intiative

the right of citizens to place a measure of issue before the voters or the legilasture for approval, allows citizens to propose a bill by petitioning with a specific number of signatures from registered voters, Gave voters the right to put a bill before that state lagislture

referendum

The name given to the political process in which the general public votes on an issue of public concern., A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment., established a procedure by which voters cast ballots for or against proposed laws

recall

gave citizens a chance to remove an elected official from office before the person's term ended, the act of removing an official by petition, it allowed voters to remove unscrupulous public officials

17th amendment

Direct election of senators, Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures., Established that senators were to be elected directly. This law was intended to create a more democratic, fair society.

robert la follette

Progressive Wisconsin governor who attacked machine politics and pressured the state legislature to require each party to hold a direct primary, progressive wisconsin govenor whose agenda of reforms was known as the wisconsin idea, 1855-1925. Progressive Wisconsin Senator and Governor. Staunch supporter of the Progressive movement, and vocal opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, WWI, and League of Nations., The liberal canidate in the 1924 presidential election. His new progressive party called for government ownership of railroads, relief for farmers, reform of monopoly and anti-labor businesses and urged for an amendment that would limit the supreme courts ability to overturn congressional decisions, battling bob

wisconsin model/idea

Package of reform ideas advocated by LaFollette that included Initiative, Recall, Referendum, La Follete in 1900 was elected and introduced a state wide program of prgressive reform this plan lowered railroad rates, the result was the increased railroad traffic which helped both railroad owners and customers., The program aimed to decrease the power of political machines and to make state government more professional. Crafted by ideas from Wisconsin by Gov. Robert M. LaFollette, election reforms, commissions to regulate railroads and utilities and formed commissions to oversee transportation, civil service, and taxation

muller v. oregon

1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health, 1908 - 10 hr workday for women; Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health, considered a win, even though sexist

louis brandeis

progressive lawyer nominated to Supreme Court by Wilson, known for his brilliance and for fighting many public causes, his work earned him the name "the people's lawyer", first Jewish Supreme Court nominee, A lawyer and jurist, he created the "Brandeis Brief," which succinctly outlines the facts of the case and cites legal precedents, in order to persuade the judge to make a certain ruling., This brilliant lawyer and later a justice of the Supreme court spoke and wrote widely about the "curse of bigness." He thought the government should help small businesses, muller v. oregon, , A prominent reformer and Attorney in "Muller vs. Oregon" (1908) that persuaded Supreme Court to accept constitutionality of laws protecting women workers saying conditions are harder on women's weaker bodies. Wrote book "Other People's Money and How Bankers use it" (1914) that pushed reform within the banks. Nominated in 1916 by Woodrow Wilson for Supreme Court, helped lead the American Zionist movement

lochner v. new york

A Supreme Court ruling that unless long work hours directly jeopardized workers' health, the government could not abride an employee's freedom to negotiate his own work schedule with his employer., Supreme Court case which struck a blow to Progressives by invalidating the law establishing a 10 hour day for bakers, (1905) This supreme court case debated whether or not New York state violated the liberty of the fourteenth amendment which allowed Lochner to regulate his business when he made a contract. The specific contract Lochner made violated the New York statute which stated that bakers could not work more than 60 hours per week, and more than 10 hours per day. Ultimately, it was ruled that the New York State law was invalid, and interfered with the freedom of contract.

triangle shirtwaist fire

a fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146 people, mostly women. They died because the doors were locked and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground. Dramatized the poor working conditions and let to federal regulations to protect workers., More than 146 workers died. The owners locked the doors to keep out union organizers and so workers couldn't steal. People started jumping out of the windows it was so bad. The owners were tried for man slaughter but they were found not guilty. After this many laws were made to make the work place safer. New York passed the most stict laws., Disaster at a New York factory in 1911 when 146 workers were either burned or jumped to their deaths from the eight or ninth floor, most of them young women; Caused a lot of labor laws to be changed regarding safety

pacifism

Opposition to all war, the belief that all international disputes can be settled by arbitration, the doctrine that all violence in unjustifiable, the belief that disputes (disagreements) between nations should be settled peacefully

jane addams

the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes, 1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom., an American social worker, sociologist, philosopher and reformer. She was also the first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize, and a founder of the U.S. Settlement House Movement, pacifist

woman's christian temperance union

Group aimed at combating the influence of alcohol in families, Headed by Frances E. Willard, this organization found friends w/ Anti-Saloon League & vehemently opposed alcohol, Political power that campaigned for sobriety and decency, Supported the Anti-Saloon League, an organization that blamed alcohol for crime, poverty, and violence against women and children, and fought against it., created by Frances Willard who celebrated a female's role in society and politics, expanded on other issues like welfare and public health reform, trained women as lobbyists and organizers - increased confidence in politics

theodore roosevelt

26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War, Leader of Rough Riders, Vice President and very famous President, big stick policy, president from 1901-1909 • Trust-busting: shut down 44 monopolies • Environmental conservation—established many national parks • Square deal: balancing interests of consumer, business and laborer, wanted to run for 3rd term, pro-war, demeaned wilson and taft for not taking action, , President from 1901-1909; Big Stick diplomacy (military force); Roosevelt Corollary; Nobel Prize for Russo-Japan war; Bull Moose party-New Nationalism; fought trusts, aided Progressive reforms, built Panama Canal; increased US influence overseas

square deal

Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers, Theodore Roosevelt's promise of fair and equal treatment for all, President Theodore Roosevelt's plan for reform; all Americans are entitled to an equal opportinity to succeed, Name of TD's programs of reform. Focused on busting trusts, gov't regulation of big biz, fair chance for labor, and environmental conservation, Theodore Roosevelt's 1904 presidential campaign slogan pledging to balance the interests of business, consumers, and labor., Progressive concept by Roosevelt that would help capital, labor, and the public. It called for control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. It denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trust-busting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good.

anthracite coal strike

Large strike by coal miners led by Miner's Union president George F. Baer, 1902 United Mine Workers of America strike in eastern Pennsylvania which threatened to cause an energy crisis requiring the federal government to intervene on the side of labor (first time), 1902 United Mine Workers of America strike in eastern Pennsylvania which threatened to cause an energy crisis. Roosevelt had no authority in the matter, but summoned representatives of both sides to a White House meeting. The president proposed arbitration; the miners accepted the proposal, but the owners declined. Then Roosevelt angrily threatened to send in federal soldiers to take over the mines. After issuing this threat, he turned to J.P. Morgan and secured his services to act as a go-between with the mine operators., Teddy forced laborers and business to settle issues and threatened to take the business and nationalize it

department of commerce and labor

(1903 TR) A new cabinet position was created to address the relationship between business and labor. Within the new dept, the Bureau of Corporations was empowered to investigate and report on potentially monopolistic activities of corporations. By the time TR left office, indictments had been brought against 25 monopolies including Standard Oil Co, Northern Securities Co, and American Tobacco Co., TR est. this dept armed with the Bureau of Corporations meant to probe businesses engaged in interstate commerce and clearing the road for trust-busting era

elkins act

(1903) gave the Interstate Commerce Commission more power to control railroads from giving preferences to certain customers, Fined Railroads who gave rebates and shippers who accepted them. It gave more power than the ICC to regulate the monopolistic railroads., (1903) Federal law that prohibited shippers from accepting rebates., (1903) Outlawed the use of rebates by railroad officials or shippers so that prices for the common people weren't unfairly raised, The Elkins Act of 1903 was an act passed by Congress against the Railroad industries. It was specifically targeted at the use of rebates. It allowed for heavy fining of companies who used rebates and those who accepted them. It is part of the Progressive Reform movement.

hepburn act

This 1906 law used the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate the maximum charge that railroads to place on shipping goods., Prohibited free passes. Gave ICC enough power to regulate the economy. It allowed it to set freight rates and required a uniform system of accounting by regulated transportation companies., (1906) allowed ICC to regulate shipping prices of railroads [pro farmer], gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power to set maximum railroad rates and led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers.

Northern Securities Co. v. United States

The Supreme Court ruled that the Northern Securities Company, which controlled three railroads and monopolized rail transit for 1/4 of the United States was in violation of the Sherman Anti Trust Act of 1890. This was the first real usage of the law to break down monopolies., the stockholders of the Great Northern and Northern Pacific railroad companies, who had essentially formed a monopoly, and to dissolve the Northern Securities Company were ruled against in Supreme Court because the arrangement was an illegal combination in restraint of interstate commerce, which is regulated by Congress, not the Northern Securities Co.

william howard taft

27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term., Successor of Roosevelt; Different views than Teddy; part of political corruption; Passed Sixteenth Amendment, (1908-1912), was endorsed by Roosevelt because he pledged to carry on progressive program, then he didn't appoint any Progressives to the Cabinet, actively pursued anti-trust law suits, appoints Richard Ballinger as Secretary of the Interior, Ballinger opposed conservation and favored business interests, Taft fires Gifford Pinchot (head of U.S. forestry), ran for re-election in 1912 but lost to Wilson, promoted "dollar diplomacy" to expand foreign investments, 27th President (1908-1912), he was the only man to serve as both President of the U.S. and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Overweight, he was the only president to get stuck in the White House bathtub. Roosevelt supported he in 1908, but later ran against him.

trustbuster

Name describing T. Roosevelt for his attempts to breakup businesses hurting the public interest, TR, a moderate (R) is seen as someone who topples trusts & monopolies, yet this reputation is largely overrated, a nickname given to Teddy Roosevelt as someone who wanted to destroy all trusts although he did not- he only wanted to destroy bad trusts (good trusts could be controlled), taft actually busted more trusts

u.s. steel

Established in 1901 by J.P. Morgan and Carnegie, it was a combination of steel operations into a single corporation, corporation that Taft tried to bust, infuriating TR, Company TR had supported that Taft wanted to press antitrust suits against, led partially to the destruction of their friendship, Carnegie sold company for 400 million to a new steel directorate led by J.P. Morgan; 1st billion dollar company and largest enterprise in world with 168000 people and 1/5th of steel business in US under its control, interlocking directories

upton sinclair

muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen., Writer who wrote The Jungle. While intending to reveal the plight of the worker, he revealed the unsanitary conditions where meat was created, which prompting Roosevelt to pass the Meat Inspection Act.

the jungle

This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act., Muckraking book by Upton Sinclair that detailed the gross innards of the meatpacking industry, book written by muckraker Upton Sinclair, whose purpose was to expose inhumane practices in the meatpacking industry; alerted many Americans to the fact that meat processing was highly unsanitary; prompted T Roosevelt to create the Food and Drug Administration

meat inspection act

Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption., Required strict cleanliness requirements for meat packers and created a program of federal meat inspection. It came about in 1906 as a result of president Roosevelt reading Upton Sinclair's The Jungle. Roosevelt appointed a commission of experts. To investigate the meat packing industry. Then the commission issued a report backing up Sinclair's account of the disgusting conditions in the industry.

pure food and drug inspection act

the main reason for the food,drug, and meat inspection act was due to muckrakers like Sinclair when he wrote the jungle. law meant to prevent adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals.aw which required that meat shipped over state lines would be federally inspected during entire packing process, response to muckrakers uncovering horrifying conditions of meat packing industry

desert land act

1906, Federal government sold arid land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser irrigate the thirsty soil within 3 years., federal government sold arid land cheaply so the buyer will irrigate water in 3 years and **was the first step towards conservation, Under this 1877 act, the federal government sold arid land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser would irrigate the soil within 3 years. It was one of the first feeble steps for conservation.

national parks

set up by Theodore Roosevelt, it is land that the government has left to be preserved in order for people to use for recreational purposes., wilderness areas preserved by the government of a country for the use of its people, conservation

john muir

He campaigned for preservation of wildlife. The Birth of the Conservation Movement began in the 1870s, founder of the Sierra club, went on a campaign for awareness of the environment; inspired creation of Yosemite National Park; became president of the Sierra Club, which was devoted to conservation

conservationists

Somebody who campaigns for, supports, or works toward the preservation, management, and care of the environment, especially of natural resources in the countryside., Concerned with using natural areas and wildlife in ways that sustain them for surrent and future generations of humans and other forms of life

gifford pinchot

head of the U.S. Forest Servic under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them, was the first Chief of the United States Forest Service (1905-1910) and the Governor of Pennsylvania (1923-1927, 1931-1935). He was a Republican and Progressive. Pinchot is known for reforming the management and development of forests in the United States and for advocating the conservation of the nation's reserves by planned use and renewal., One of the country's first scientific foresters, appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1881 as the chief of the newly created Division of Forestry in the Department of Agriculture; worked to develop programs and public interest in conservation, but was fired in 1910 by President William Howard Taft after exposing a supposed scandal involving western conservation land in what came to be known as the Ballinger-Pinchot affair.

newlands (reclamation) act

Authorized the government to collect money from the sale of public land in the west to fund irrigation projects. It gave western lands better soil and insured that all natural resources would be managed by experts., Insured that all natural resources would be managed by experts. Funding came from public-land sales and was used to build irrigation projects.

sierra club

oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization in the United States. It was founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known conservationist and preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. The Sierra Club has hundreds of thousands of members in chapters located throughout the US, and is affiliated with Sierra Club Canada., organization founded in 1892 dedicated to the preservation of the Western landscape, Conservationist group founded by John Muir

roosevelt panic of 1907

Brief but sharp economic downturn of 1907, blamed by conservatives on the supposedly dangerous president., a short but punishing panic descended on Wall Street. the blame was quickly placed on Roosevelt. fortunately, this panic paved the way for long-overdue fiscal reforms. Congress in 1908 responded with the Aldrich-Vreeland Act, which authorized national banks to issue emergency currency backed by various kinds of collateral., a serious recession, proved the govt. still had little control over the industrial economy. Conservatives blamed Roosevelt's mad economic policies for the disaster, and the president disagreed, but acted quickly to reassure business leaders that he wouldn't interfere with their private recovery efforts., A short depression known as the Richman's Panic (Banker's panic) because the rich overspeculated. It called attention to inelasticity of the currency and the great control private banks had over the money supply., led to creation of Federal Reserve System

eugene v debs

Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over., led the Pullman strike and founded the American Railway Union, This socialist party leader and opposed the war on political grounds. They regarded it as a capitalist contest for world markets, The US declaration of war reflected on Wall Street's desire to protect its loans to England and France., Ran for U.S. President five times as a socialist. The last attempt was made while he was serving time in prison for obstructing the draft of World War I.

dollar diplomacy

Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries, President Taft's policy of linking American business interests to diplomatic interests abroad, Foriegn Policy idea by Taft to make countries dependant on the U.S. by heavily investing in their economies, President Taft's policy of promoting U. S. Interests overseas by encouraging American business to invest in foreign countries, particularly in the Caribbean and Central America., President William Howard Taft's policy of influencing Latin America Governments through economic and business involvement, not military intervention, led to informal treaty with Honduras and Nicaraqua

manchurian railway crisis

Taft attempted used Dollar Diplomacy to buy the Manchurian railroads from the Russians and Japanese and turn them over to China to free the railroads from the Russian and Japanese monopoly. This would promote Chinese economic interests and maintain the Open Door policy. His advances were rejected., Monopoly that Taft saw as a threat to the Open Door Policy w/ China, Chinese railway bought by US and turned over to China

payne-aldrich tariff

Signed by Taft in March of 1909 in contrast to campaign promises. Was supposed to lower tariff rates but Senator Nelson N. Aldrich of Rhode Island put revisions that raised tariffs. This split the Repulican party into progressives (lower tariff) and conservatives (high tariff)., Attempt at tariff reform by lowering tariff that ends up getting so many amendments tacked on that it increases the tariff, (WT) 1909, , Signed by Taft in March of 1909 in contrast to campaign promises. Was supposed to lower tariff rates but Senator Nelson N. Aldrich of Rhode Island put revisions that raised tariffs. This split the Repulican party into progressives (lower tariff) and conservatives (high tariff)., Attempt at tariff reform by lowering tariff that ends up getting so many amendments tacked on that it increases the tariff

woodrow wilson

28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize, After World War I, this United States president sought to reduce the risk of war by writing the Fourteen Points that influenced the creation of the League of Nations., President of the United States (1913-1921) and the leading figure at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. He was unable to persuade the U.S. Congress to ratify the Treaty of Versailles or join the League of Nations. (p. 762)

new freedom

Woodrow Wilson's domestic policy that, promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters., Woodrow Wilson's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Freedom emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one., Wilson's belief that that the federal government should restore competition rather than regulate monopolies; this required eliminating all trusts, lowering tariffs, and breaking up the concentration of financial power on Wall Street; dreaming of turning over most social programs to the states and the cities; saw the vigorous expansion of federal power as a temporary necessity, not a permanent conditions; having restored competition and the diffusion of power and programs, the national government would revent to its aloof heritage

bull moose party

nickname for the new Progressive Party, which was formed to support Roosevelt in the election of 1912, The Republicans were badly split in the 1912 election, so Roosevelt broke away forming his own Progressive Party (or Bull Moose Party because he was "fit as a bull moose..."). His loss led to the election of Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, but he gained more third party votes than ever before., Progressive Party; political party created by a split in the Republican Party in the presidential election of 1912; formed by Theodore Roosevelt when he lost the Republican nomination to William Howard Taft and pulled his delegates out of the convention; known as the Bull Moose Party after the party's emblem and after Roosevelt's boast that he was "as strong as a bull moose"

new nationalism

Roosevelt's domestic platform during the 1912 election accepting the power of trusts and proposing a more powerful government to regulate them, Theodore Roosevelt's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Nationalism called for a national approach to the country's affairs and a strong president to deal with them. It also called for efficiency in government and society; it urged protection of children, women, and workers; accepted "good" trusts; and exalted the expert and the executive. Additionally, it encouraged large concentrations of capital and labor., when Roosevelt lost to Taft in the primaries, he joined the Progressive Party and was nominated and campaigned for this which presented a vision of strong federal government, regulating and protecting the interests of American society - platform called for women's suffrage, 8-hour work day, prohibition of child labor, and stricter regulation of large corporations - contrasted Wilson's "New Freedom"

herbert croly

He wrote the The Promise of American Life (1909) where he called for an activist fed govn't of the kind Hamilton had advocated in the 1790s but one that would serve all citizens, not merely the capitalist class., He favored the regulation of trusts and labor unions with a strong national government and inspired the book The Promise of American Life, He wrote the The Promise of American Life (1909) where he called for an activist federal government of the kind Hamilton had advocated in the 1790s but one that would serve all citizens, not merely the capitalist class., political theorists that argues that the government should use its regulatory and taxation powers to promote the welfare of all its citizens

election of 1912

Presidential campaign involving Taft, T. Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson. Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote, enabling Wilson to win, When the Republican's votes were split between Taft and Roosevelt, the Democrats stayed together and elected Wilson as President. The Republicans had no chance because they had two candidates running., William Howard Taft/republican vs. Teddy Roosevelt/progressive ("Bull Moose" Campaign) vs. Woodrow Wilson/democrat vs. Eugene V. Debs/socialist= Wilson (first democratic winner since Cleveland), offered voters severl choices: Wilson's New Freedom, Taft's conservation, Roosevelt's progressivism, or the Socialist Party policies of Eugene V. Debs.

triple wall of privilege

The banks, trusts, and tariffs that Wilson pledged to topple were collectively known as this, The collective term for what Wilson try to assault as a progressive president, WIlson's plan to reform the economy by attacking the tariff, the banks, and the trusts

underwood tariff

Pushed through Congress by Woodrow Wilson, this 1913 tariff reduced average tariff duties by almost 15% and established a graduated income tax, Reduced the average tariff on imprted goods to about 30 percent of the value of the goods, or about half the tariff rate of the 1890s, Tariff reduced the tariffs from the Payne-Aldrich Tariff to about 29% and included a graduated income tax. It was a milestone in tax legislation since it enacted a graduated income tax., October 13, 1913 - Lowered tariffs on hundreds of items that could be produced more cheaply in the U.S. than abroad.

16th amendment

Power of Congress to tax incomes, Amendment that legalizes the income tax, federal income tax, Authorized the collection of income tax. This made the rich pay their fair share to the government as well as allowing the Underwood-Simmons Tariff of 1913 to lower many tariffs

pujo committee

It researched and later reported on the concentration of money and credit over the general populace, which was in the hands of rich capitalists. This committee's findings later led to the creation of the Federal Reserve Banking system., a congressional subcommittee which was formed between May 1912 and January 1913 to investigate the so-called "money trust", a small group of Wall Street bankers that exerted powerful control over the nation's finances. After a resolution introduced by congressman Charles Lindbergh Sr. for a probe on Wall St. power, Arsène Pujo of Louisiana obtained congressional authorization to form a subcommittee of the House Committee on Banking and Currency. J. P. Morgan, George F. Baker, and other financiers testified

louis brandeis

A lawyer and jurist, he created the "Brandeis Brief," which succinctly outlines the facts of the case and cites legal precedents, in order to persuade the judge to make a certain ruling., an American litigator, Supreme Court Justice, advocate of privacy, and developer of the Brandeis Brief. In addition, he helped lead the American Zionist, progressive lawyer nominated to Supreme Court by Wilson, known for his brilliance and for fighting many public causes, his work earned him the name "the people's lawyer", first Jewish Supreme Court nominee. Brandeis Breif, This brilliant lawyer and later a justice of the Supreme court spoke and wrote widely about the "curse of bigness." He thought the government should help small businesses.

federal reserve act

Sparked by the Panic of 1893 and 1907, the 1913 Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve System, which issued paper money controlled by government banks., This act created a central banking system, consisting of twelve regional banks governed by the Federal reserve Board. It was an attempt to provide the United States with a sound yet flexible currency. The Board it created still plays a vital role in the American economy today., Regulated banking to help small banks stay in business. A move away from laissez-faire policies, it was passed by Wilson., created a central fund from which banks could borrow to prevent collapse during a financial panic

federal trade commission

A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy., Established to preserve competition by preventing unfair business practices and investigates complaints against companies, Investigated the activities of trusts and stop unfair trade practices. Enabled the government to more easily kill monopolies., A federal agency with the power to order companies to cease unfair trading practices whose decisions were subject to court review

clayton anti-trust act

An attempt to improve the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, this law outlawed interlocking directorates (companies in which the same people served as directors), forbade policies that created monopolies, and made corporate officers responsible for antitrust violations. Benefitting labor, it declared that unions were not conspiracies in restraint of trade and outlawed the use of injunctions in labor disputes unless they were necessary to protect property., designed to strengthen the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. "unfair methods of competition" expanded to include: price of discrimination, interlocking directories, purchase by one company of sock in competing corporations, contrasts limiting the right of purchasers to handle the products of competing companies., law that weakened monopolies and upheld the rights of unions and farm organizations

federal farm loan act

Passed by president Wilson in 1916. Was originally a reform wanted by the Populist party. It gave farmers the chance to get credit at low rates of interest., made lines of credit avaliable to farmers at low interest- as long demanded by the populists., (1933) consolidated all farm credit programs into the Farm Credit Administration to make low-interest loans for farm mortgages and other agricultural purposes

jones act

Act that replaced the Foraker Act. It gave Puerto Ricans full citizenship, as well as a government that was similar to a state government., 1916 act signed by Wilson that granted the Philippines the boon of territorial status, and promised independence as soon as a stable govt. could be established, which happedn 30 years later on july 4 1946., 1916 gave full territorial status to phillipinnes, guaranteed bill or rights and universial make suffurage, promised freedom

haiti

territory in which the citizens tore to pieces their president, causing a conflict in 1914-15 that forced Wilson to eat his anti-imperialism and sign a treaty providing US supervision of finances and police

moral diplomacy

foreign policy proposed by President Wilson to condemn imperialism, spread democracy, and promote peace, Policy adopted by President Woodrow Wilson that rejected the approach of "dollar diplomacy". Rather than focusing mainly on economic ties with other nations, Wilson's policy was designed to bring right principles to the world, preserve peace, and extend to other peoples the blessings of democracy., Wilson's plan for imperialism that was based upon democratic ideals (aid liberty across the world) and discouraged economic advancement or the use of force., U.S. has a moral responsibility to deny recognition to any Latin American gov't it viewed as oppressive, undemocratic, or hostile to U.S. interests.

victoriano huerta

He was a Mexican military officer and President of Mexico who was also leader of the violent revolution that took place in 1913. His rise to power caused many Mexicans to cross the border as well as angering the United States who saw him as a dictator., Mexican military officer and president of Mexico; seized power in 1913 (just as Woodrow Wilson obtained presidency); established a harsh military dictatorship. Pres. Wilson became hostile to the Huerta administration. Later resigned when forced by Argentina, Brazil, and Chile., Took over the Mexican Government after Madero's death. Responsible for Madero's death.

pancho villa

Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923) Did many good things, but killed a lot of people. Wanted to take money from the rich and give it to the poor., A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution of 1910. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata., A rebellious leader during the Mexican Revolution. His ordered attacks on U.S. citizens sparked a rapid response from Wilson., a former bandit who claimed to represent "the people" behind the revolution; Wilson initially supported him; enraged when Carranza named de facto leader of Mexico and wanted to provoke American intervention, discredit Carranza, and himself up as an opponent of the "Gringos"; burned Columbus, New Mexico; American forces sent to pursue him but he eluded them

abc powers

The South American countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, which attempted to mediate a dispute between Mexico and the United States in 1914., Argentina, Brazil and Chile, the three south american powers who rescued Wilson from full-blown conflict with Mexico by offering mediation., Argentina, Brazil, Chile; Organized a conference to resolve the crisis; In June it called for Huerta's resignation and for the creation of a provisional gov't; Huerta refused, but his enemies were closing in; That July Huerta resigned and fled to Spain

general john pershing

veteran of Cuba and phillipines wars, sent to break up Villa's band, confronted by Carranza's forces, and mauled the villistas, but didn't capture villa. withdrawn in January 1917, veteran of Cuba and phillipines wars, sent to break up Villa's band, confronted by Carranza's forces, and mauled the villistas, but didn't capture villa. withdrawn in January 1917, led the American Expeditionary Force; urged that the AEF operate as an independent fighting force, under American command; was made General of the Armies of the United States, which is the highest rank given to an officer, broke up "Pancho" Villa's gang but missed Villa himself, The leading general for the Allies, head of american forces in WW1

world war 1

a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918, also known as the Great War, conflict, chiefly in Europe, among most of the great Western powers. It was the largest war the world had yet seen., assassination of archduke f. ferdinand was the trigger of the war. many other countries joined. ( the Great War ), interupted suffrage, women got respect from WILSON .

central powers

in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire, World War I alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman empire (later joined by Bulgaria)

allied powers

Serbia, Russia, France, Great Britain, and Italy alliance in WWI, The Allied power is the name given to the alliance of countries in opposition to the Axis power in WWII. The U.S., Britain,France,Australia, New Zealand,India, The Soviet Union,Canada, and Greece are some countries that were apart of the allied powers., United Kingdom, France, Soviet Union, United States, China

american neutrality

Wilson issues a procalmation of neutrality. Most Americans supported this. America had a wide diversity of immigrants. Some men looked at it as a great adventure, and that they should be prepared bacause the war was a threat, policy:neutral in thought as well as action; who: Woodrow Wilson (sympathetic to Britain) ; problem: 33% of American population were of foreign descent (Irish against the British because they hate the British), Ethnic Groups took sides with Countries; AM had more economic ties with Allies; Wilson Admin favored Pro-allied Powers

u-boats

German submarines used in World War I, German submarines set up a blockade around Great Britain attacking any ship that entered or left British ports, German submarines used for reconnaissance and inflicted heavy losses on commercial shipping, including neutral shipping, as far away as off the USA., A fleet of German submarines which attacked any ship that entered or left British ports—including neutral ships.

hms lusitania

sunk by Germans because they rightfully suspected contraband

sussex pledge

A promise Germany made to America, after Wilson threatened to sever ties, to stop sinking their ships without warning., after French ship Sussex was sunk, Germany promised not to sink anymore merchant ships without warning; this kept the U.S. out of the war for a little while longer, Agreement in which Germany ceases submarine warfare if British stop mining North Sea (want americans to end british blockade so they would not longer be trade starved), after Wilson threatened to sever ties.

election of 1916

Charles Evan Hughes/republican vs. Woodrow Wilson/democrat ("kept us out of the war")= Wilson, Hughes, Wilson, issues: Wilson ran for reelection for the Democrats on the call that he had kept the United States out of the war. Charles Evans Hughes was the Republican candidate who attacked the inefficiency of the Democratic Party. Wilson won the election, so was able to continue his idealistic policies., Wilson was anti-war Hughes was pro-war. Wilson won by a little more than 3 percent vote., Wilson: "He kept us out of War" (but later goes to war)
TR denied nomination by Old Guard, doesn't campaign so Republican vote isn't split. TR supports Hughes
Hughes nominated. Narrowly loses to Wilson. Wilson asks for war by 1917.
Wilson wins a VERY close election, ty CALIFORNIA ^_^

he kept us out of war

Wilson's slogan, which helped secure Wilson's reelection in 1916., Wilson's campaign slogan in 1916 reminding the public that they weren't entangled in WWI

zimmermann note

a secret document to Mexico that said Germany would help them regain lost territories in Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico if they joined the war on the Central Powers side, German message, intercepted by the British, proposing an alliance with Mexico

fourteen points

the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations, It was Wilson's peace plan. Each of the points were designed to prevent future wars. He compromised each point at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The only point which remained was the 14th (League of Nations). Each one was appealing to a specific group in the war and each one held a specific purpose., Wilson's peace plan: (1) open peace covenants (2) free navigation of seas (besides territorial waters) (3) equality of trade conditions between nations (4) national armaments will be reduced as low as possible (5) impartial adjustment of colonial claims (6) leave Russia alone, let it form its own new gov't (7) evacuate and restore Belgium (8) free French territory, fix Alsace-Lorraine (9) form Italian borders along nationality lines (10) Peoples of Austria-Hungary are free to form their own nations (11) get out of Romania, Serbia, & Montenegro, let them be autonomous (12) free non-Turk Ottoman territories (13) construct a Polish state of indisputably Polish peoples (14) League of Nations

committee on public info

George Creel's committee to encourage the war effort through the use of movies, songs, and speeches. Through his efforts, you can see that George Creel and this committee were "For the War", headed by george creel, in charge of propaganda in WWI, depicted US as champion of justice and liberty, used advertising tactics to help sway public opinion in favor of the war, headed by george creel, in charge of propaganda in WWI, depicted US as champion of justice and liberty; 4 min. men gave 4 min speeches

george creel

head of the Committee on Public Information 1917 which was allegedly formed to combat wartime rumors by providing authoritative info. It served as propaganda agency proclaiming the govn'ts version of reality and discrediting those who questioned that version., Propagandist in charge of Committee of Public Information, The director of the committee on public information and chief propagandist of the American government during the first world war, a journalists who was the head of the Committee of Public Information. He helped the anti-German movement as well as inspired patriotism in America during the war.

huns

name for the german army, Kaiser Wilhelm II liked to make outrageous speeches without getting advice beforehand. On 27 July 1900 he gave a speech to German troops about to set sail for China in order to help (together with other powers) to suppress the Boxer Rebellion. Towards the end he urged the men to be 'like the Huns' and to make sure that no Chinese would ever again 'dare to pull a face at a German'. The speech caused the German government embarrassment at the time. In World War 1 it became a gift to British and French propagandists.

eugene v. debs

Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over., This socialist party leader and opposed the war on political grounds. They regarded it as a capitalist contest for world markets, The US declaration of war reflected on Wall Street's desire to protect its loans to England and France., Ran for U.S. President five times as a socialist. The last attempt was made while he was serving time in prison for obstructing the draft of World War I., involved in many railway strikes and becomes leader of american socialist party. wants worker controlled industry.

espionage act

This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection., 1917, outlawed treason (opposing draft, criticizing government, flag, or military), enacted fines and imprisonment for false statements, inciting rebellion, or obstructing recruitment or the draft. Also papers which opposed the government could be banned from the U.S. postal service. It showed American fears/paranoia about Germans and other perceived threats.

sedition act

Made it a crime to criticize the government or government officials. Opponents claimed that it violated citizens' rights to freedom of speech and freedom of the press, gauranteed by the First Amendment. , Act of 1918 made illegal any criticism of the government. It showed American fears/paranoia about Germans and other perceived threats., Act where you could fine or jail anyone for saying/printing anything critical of the federal government or the laws passed by them

schenck v. united states

Court case that limited freedom of speech 2) upheld the Espionage Act 3) under certain circumstances, the SC can limit free speech., Supreme court decides that any actions taken that present a "clear and present danger" to the public or government isn't allowed, this can limit free speech, A 1919 decision upholding the conviction of a socialist who had urged young men to resist the draft during World War I. Justice Holmes declared that government can limit speech if the speech provokes a "clear and present danger" of substantive evils.

bernard baruch

He headed the War Industries Board which placed the control of industries into the hands of the federal government. It was a prime example of War Socialism., a Wall Street broker before being chosen by President Wilson in 1918 to head the War Industries Board. He helped the U.S. Manage war production., economic advisor to United States Presidents (1870-1965), Head of the War Industries Board, which attempted to impose some order on the U.S. war production

war industries board

Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries., Headed by Bernard Baruch, could order businesses to support war by building more plants, etc., This government agency oversaw the production of all American factories. It determined priorities, allocated raw materials, and fixed prices; it told manufacturers what they could and could not produce., Agency created by Woodrow Wilson during WW1 to oversee the production and distribution of goods manufactured by nations war industries.

samuel gompers

United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924), was an American labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor (AFL), and served as the AFL's president from 1886-1894 and from 1895 until his death in 1924, called something the magna carta of labor, , led the AFL (American Federation of Labor), a skilled craft union, fought for wages and working conditions, they went on strike, boycotted and used collective bargaining

american federation of labor

a federation of North American labor unions that merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955, Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, a labor union that concentrated on "bread and butter" issues: wages and work days while avoiding politics, 1886 founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, willing to let unskilled fend for themselves, small minority, supported the war

industrial workers of the world

Founded in 1905, this radical union, also known as the Wobblies aimed to unite the American working class into one union to promote labor's interests. It worked to organize unskilled and foreign-born laborers, advocated social revolution, and led several major strikes. Stressed solidarity., Union of radicals and socialists nicknamed the Wobblies, supported Socialists, militant unionists and socialists, advocated strikes and sabotaging politics, aimed for an umbrella union similar to Knights of Labor, ideas too radical for socialist cause, IWW; a group of radical unionists and socialists who formed in 1905. Known as the Wobblies. Wobblies included miners, lumbers, and dock workers. Unlike the ARU the IWW welcomed African Americans. Gave sense of solidarity to unskilled workers.

steel strike of 1919

occured in 1919 ; workers represented by the American Federation of Labor went on strike against the United States Steel Corporation ; workers at other companies joined the strike ; labor unrest eventually involved more than 350,000 workers ; known as the Great Steel Strike of 1919 ; huge work stoppage, A work stoppage that began when some 365,000 steelworkers in Pennsylvania walked off the job to demand recognition of their union, higher wages, and shorter hours, broken by exploiting ethnic and racial divisions among the steelworkers and partly by branding the strikers as "reds", In 1919 steel workers wanted the right to negotiate for a shorter workday, Union to recognize and collective bargaining rights.
September 1919 the US steel Corporation refused to meet with union representatives.
So about 300,000 workers walked away from the job
Owners hired strikebreakers who would work before an after the strike

chicago race riot

black populations expanded to white neighborhoods, and found jobs as strikebreakers, and they were triggered by an indecent at a beach lead to black and white gangs killing fifteen whites and 23 blacks, Largest of several race riots took place here.

national woman's party

Pacifist feminist party led by alice Paul, women opposed to Wilson's war, A group of militant suffragists who took to the streets with mass pickets, parades, and hunger strikes to convince the govt to give them the right to vote. Led by Alice Paul., was a women's organization founded in 1916 that fought for women's rights during the early 20th century in the United States, particularly for the right to vote on the same terms as men. In contrast to other organizations, such as the National American Woman Suffrage Association, which focused on lobbying individual states, the NWP put its priority on the passage of a constitutional amendment ensuring women's suffrage.

NAWSA

National American Woman Suffrage Association; founded in 1890 to help women win the right to vote, is an American women's rights organization. It was founded in May 1890. Susan B. Anthony was in charge of the NAWSA for the first 10 years of its existence., merged group of two women's groups led by Ann Shaw and Carrie Catt, Organization established in 1890 to promote woman suffrage; stressed that women's special virtue made them indispensable to politics.

carrie chapman catt

Spoke powerfully in favor of suffrage, worked as a school principal and a reporter ., became head of the National American Woman Suffrage, an inspiried speaker and abrilliant organizer. Devised a detailed battle plan for fighting the war of suffrage., (1859-1947) A suffragette who was president of the National Women's Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920., Leader of the NWSA who devised the "Winning Plan" to ratify woman's suffrage, A suffragette who was president of the National Women's Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.

food administration

This government agency was headed by Herbert Hoover and was established to increase the production of food and ration food for the military., Created by Wilson during WWI - Led by Herbert Hoover - set up ration system to save food for soldiers, Agency created to encourage farmers to produce more and to persuade the public to eat less; goal was to assure enough food was available for the troops; encourages "Wheatless Mondays, "Meatless Tuesdays" and "Porkless Thursdays.", Sets and maintains purity and safety standards for food, drugs, and cosmetics; ensures accurate labeling; removes unsafe products from the market, It was a government organization created to stir up a patriotic spirit which encouraged people to voluntarily sacrifice some of their own goods for the war. It helped the war effort by helping create a food surplus to feed America and its allies.

herbert hoover

Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community., president of the U.S from 1923-1933 leader of the US in the beginning of the great depression. He didn't want the gov involved in the peoples lives and thought that the people should express their individual rights., President during the Great Depression. Not well liked. Ignored the depression of the country and the lack of jobs and homes., president (1929-1933) who is blamed for the Great Depression; although he tried to use government power to bring on recovery, his inflexibility and refusal to giver direct relief doomed his programs and his presidency., Walked into the Presidency when the economy was "stable". His election seemed to ensure prosperity. Yet within months the stock market crashed, and the Nation spiraled downward into depression. After the crash Hoover announced that while he would keep the Federal budget balanced, he would cut taxes and expand public works spending.

volunteerism

the practice of offering your time and services to others without payment, president Hoover called for this after the Depression, pledge to maintain wages, desist from strikes, and continue present level of investment, November 1929. Hoover called a series of voluntary conferences between labor and business leaders. Wanted them to pledge to maintain wages, desist from strikes, and continue the present level of investment. Hoped that individuals would not act in their own interest, but in the country's best interest.

victory gardens

Backyard gardens; Americans were encouraged to grow their own vegetables to support the war effort, what Hoover encouraged US citizens to plant to raise their own vegetables in order to leave more for the troops, backyard gardens, americans were encouraged to grow their own vegetables to support the war effort, during WWII conservation was stressed along with production. Along with collecting scrap metal, people grew their own food in their backyard 'victory gardens'. It was an innovation spurred by the war effort

liberty bonds

Where people bought bonds so the government could get that money now for war. The bonds increased in interest over time., buying bonds- american citizens would lend money to the government to pay for the war- JP Morgan, Special war bond sold by the government to support the Allied cause during the WWI, a bond which allowed the American citizen to lend money to the government to pay for the war.

selective service act

This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of WWI, 24.2 had registered; 2.8 had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45., law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft, was drafted by Brigadier General Hugh Johnson after the United States entered the First World War. The law authorized President Woodrow Wilson to raise a volunteer infantry force of not more than four divisions. All males between the ages of 21 and 30 were required to register for military service. By 12th September 1918, 23,908,566 men had registered. Around 4,000,000 men were ultimately drafted into the armed services. Of these, 50 per cent served overseas during the war.

russian revolution

Prompted by labor unrest, personal liberties, and elected representatives, this political revolution occurred in 1917 when Czar Nicholas II was murdered and Vladimir Lenin sought control to implement his ideas of socialism., the revolution against the Czarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917, the coup d'etat by the Bolsheviks under Lenin in November 1917 that led to a period of civil war which ended in victory for the Bolsheviks in 1922, Led to Russia withdrawing from WWI due to a communist takeover of their government

archangel expedition

US troops helped in an Allied invasion of Russia at Archangel to prevent munition from falling into the hands of Germans, 1917 - U.S. sent troops to the Soviet cities of Murmansk and Archangel to reinforce White Russians (non-Communists). The U.S. troops did not fight Communists, but instead defended the ports., In 1918, Allied forces landed in the port of Archangel, Russia to defend Allied military stockpiles from German attack. Allied forces later became anti-Bolshevik and seized the port. Allies favored the Whites during the period of Russia's civil war. United States involvement in this campaign compromised American neutrality.

doughboys

a nickname for the inexperienced but fresh American soldiers, American troops sent to Europe toward end of the war. commanded by "Black Jack" Pershing, American soldiers who were often untrained and inexperienced in battle, nickname for soldier recruits of American Expeditionary Force who joined army for money; fought in World War I; over 250,000 a month sent in to fight in 1918

gas warfare

war using an airborne weapon that caused blindness, skin blisters, and choking to death, To fight by using bombs containing chlorine or mustard gas., In April 1915 at the 2nd Battle of Ypres, the Germans used gas warfare for the first time. It was subsequently used by both the Germans and the Allies for the rest of the First World War. Heavier than air, mustard and chlorine gases had devastating results on soldiers in low trenches, and destroyed lungs and eyesight.

trench warfare

Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI., type of fighting in which both sides dig trenches and attempt to overrun the enemy's trenches, war from inside trenches enemies would try killing each other with machine guns and tanks, and poison gas, a bloody form of war that consisted of two opposing forces digging holes in the ground or "trenches" to provide shelter from enemy gunfire. Heavy Artillery would be able to shoot through trenches and infantry would race across "no man's land" or the land between the two frontal trenches. Gas was also used to fill the trenches and kill all within them.

general john pershing

led the American Expeditionary Force; urged that the AEF operate as an independent fighting force, under American command; was made General of the Armies of the United States, which is the highest rank given to an officer, Insisted that U.S. troops serve as a "distinct and seperate component" of the combined allied forces in Europe., US general who unsuccessfully pursues Villa in Mexico, veteran of Cuba and phillipines wars, sent to break up Villa's band, confronted by Carranza's forces, and mauled the villistas, but didn't capture villa. withdrawn in January 1917, commander of the American Expeditionary Force, found that the Allies intended to use American troops simply as reinforcements, and believed in aggressive combat and felt three ears of trench warfare and had made the Allies too defensive

armistice 1918

The armistice between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on 11 November 1918, and marked the end of the First World War on the Western Front. Principal signatories were Marshal Ferdinand Foch, the Allied Commander-in-chief, and Matthias Erzberger, Germany's representative. It was a military agreement that marked a complete defeat for Germany, but was neither an unconditional surrender nor a treaty., new german gov (democratic-republic) signed an armistice to stop fighting, Arms treaty between Russia and Germany., when france and germany signed an agreement to stop fighting in ww1

henry cabot lodge

Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations, conservative senator who wanted to keep the united states out of the league of nations, Henry Cabot Lodge was a Republican who disagreed with the Versailles Treaty, and who was the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He mostly disagreed with the section that called for the League to protect a member who was being threatened., Led a group of senators during Woodrow Wilson's presidency known as the "reservationists" during the 1919 debate over the League of Nations., expressed doubts about the League of Nations, an international organization, 39 senators signed a round robin letter rejecting the League in its present form.

big four

The Big Four were the four most important leaders, and the most important ones at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson- USA, David Lloyd George- UK, George Clemenceau- France, and Vittorio Orlando- Italy., a group of four men who decided key issues for a peace treaty (Treaty of Versailles: Clemenceau, Orlando, George, Wilson), the US, Great Britain, Italy, and France were four victorious nations who decided the terms for peace at the conclusion of WWI. Woodrow Wilson proposed the 14 point plan but was unable to convince his own Congress to allow the US to join the League of Nations.

paris peace conference

The great rulers and countries excluding germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful., the event at which the Allies met to discuss the fate of Europe, the former Ottoman Empire, and various colonies around the world after the end of WWI (the Central Powers were not allowed to participate in negotiations), a conference between the US, France, and Britain; Germany wasn't invited; France wanted huge reparations, land, and to disband the German army; US wanted a league of nations; Great Britain wanted land and reparations from Germany but not as much as france

league of nations

International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s. (763), A world organization proposed by Woodrow Wilson. Some of the countries did not support it. It was formed to try to prevent any future wars. Wilson believes that it will change the old world way of doing things. Congress of U.S. rejected the it. Wilson also wants to bring democratic self-government to the world community., One of Wilson's Fourteen Points, this was a proposal for an international organization which would have the goal of maintaining world peace., Wilson's hope that this would become an instrument for peace and justice by submitting differences among its members to arbitration

treaty of versailles

the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans, Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons., The treaty imposed on Germany by France, Great Britain, the United States, and other Allied Powers after World War I. It demanded that Germany dismantle its military and give up some lands to Poland. It was resented by many Germans. (p. 763), The Treaty of Versailles was the product of the Paris Peace Conference, although none of the Allies was happy with it. Germany was forced to sign the treaty, which was very harsh. Germany had to accept all responsibility for the war, pay the Allies huge reparations; including pensions, severely weaken the size of her army, return Alsace-Lorraine to France, and give up overseas colonies.

ratification debate

debates over the treaty of paris, wilson wanted league of nations, not accepted by the u.s. as it was, made it easier for other allies to change conditions on the treaty

isolationists

people who wanted the United States to stay out of world affairs, Faction of US that wanted to stay out of EU's WWI because they felt US should just deal with Western hemisphere problems, a foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military policy and a political policy of economic nationalism (protectionism). In other words, it asserts both of the following: 1. Non-interventionism - Political rulers should avoid entangling alliances with other nations and avoid all wars not related to direct territorial self-defense. 2. Protectionism - There should be legal barriers to control trade and cultural exchange with people in other states.

irreconcilables

These were Republicans who wanted no part with the League of Nations. They were a burden to the vote on the League of Nations and had a part in its failure to pass., senators opposed to ratification of the Treaty of Versailles on any grounds; lead by isolationists William Borah, Hiram Johnson, and Robert La Follette, hard core group who opposed the League, led by Senators Borah and Johnson, also known as the Battalion of Death, During World War I, senators William Borah of Idaho and Hiram Johnson of California, led a group of people who were against the United States joining the League of Nations. Also known as "the Battalion of Death". They were extreme isolationists and were totally against the U.S. joining the League of Nations.

reservationists

Senators who pledged to vote in favor of the Treaty of Versailles if certain changes were made - led by Henry Cabot Lodge, These were Republicans who wanted no part with the League of Nations unless there were some changes. They were a burden to the vote on the League of Nations and had a part in its failure to pass., Members of the Senate who were ready to ratify the Treaty of Versailles with modifications; the group is often divided into the "mild" Reservationists, who wanted only minor changes, and the "strong" Reservationists, who favored the significant changes advocated by Henry Cabot Lodge.

internationalists

opposed the war; viewed it as a struggle between capitalist powers in which workers were but pawns., a person who holds the view that the country should involve itself deeply in worldly affairs, supported the treaty of versailles, believed that greater cooperation amoung nations could work for the benfit of all., the party that voted on a treaty with no change. This group was headed by Wilson. Although WIlson roamed the country in order to gain more votes, the vote was split. The Treaty of Versailles could not be passed because the reservationists would always vote against the internationalists, and the internationalists would vote against the reservationists. This accounts for the defeat of The Treaty of Versailles.

election of 1920

Warren G. Harding (R) vs James Cox (D) 2) issues were WW I; the post-war economy and the League of Nations 3) Harding preached "Normalcy", Harding (R) vs Cox (D) 2) Main issue was the treaty of Versailles, Warren G. Harding: republican ; James M. Cox: democrat ; Eugene V. Debs: socialist ; favored for American need to "return to normalcy" ; postwar economy ; league of nations ; Harding Wins, wilson urged nation to make election a "great and solemn referendum" on league convanent; republicans won becaue they wanted the war issue behind them, Warren G. Harding (R) vs James Cox (D) 2) issues were WW I; the post-war economy and the League of Nations 3) Harding preached "Normalcy" (- returning to normal instead of being overly idealistic), Harding (R) vs Cox (D) 2) Main issue was the treaty of Versailles, first time women voted

warren g harding

president who called for a return to normalcy following WWI, He was the 29th president and served from 1920 till his death in 1923. He promised to return the country to normalcy during his presidential Campaign which was held during the aftermath of WW1. He appointed many cabinet members who presented many plans. The Mellon plan was presented by Mellon, the Secretary of Treasury., Elected in 1920. laissez-faire, little regard for gov't or presidency. "Return to Normalcy" after Wilson + his progressive ideals. Office became corrupt: allowed drinking in prohibition, had an affair, surrounded himself w/ cronies (used office for private gain). Died after 3 years in office, VP: Coolidge took over, 29th President of the United States (1921-1923). A "good guy" who was scared to say no; he was very naive. Scandals took place during his administration. He died in 1923 from pneumonia and thrombosis.

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