The Protestant Reformation occurred at a time of sharpest conflict between
emerging nation-states and self-governing cities and towns
The textbook discusses the guild for __________ as an example of a group that supported the Reformation for a variety of social, cultural, and (self-interested) economic reasons.
The benefice system of the medieval church provided income for the local parish from Rome. (true/false)
Popes Julius II and Leo X used the sale of indulgences to help pay for the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. (true/false)
Luther vehemently opposed the sale of indulgences, because he felt that
they portrayed salvation as something that could be bought and sold
In April 1521, Luther refused to recant his beliefs in front of the __________.
diet of worms
Luther supported the German Peasants' Revolt of 1524-1525
Anabaptists believed that __________ performed on a consenting adult conformed to Scripture and was more respectful of human freedom.
John Calvin was exiled from Geneva
because of suspicion that he wanted to create a "new papacy."
Charles V failed to stamp out Protestantism within the Holy Roman Empire because
he was distracted by foreign wars
The Peace of Augsburg between the forces of Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League established the principle of cuius regio, eius religio, meaning, in practice,
the religion of each German locality would be determined by its ruler
By the middle of the sixteenth century, Lutheranism had become the state religion of Denmark and Norway. (true/false)
Pope Leo X initially gave King Henry VIII the title "__________" because of Henry's vocal anti-Protestantism.
defender of the faith
The official document that made the English monarch head of the Church of England was the Declaration of London. (true/false)
After his break with Rome, Henry VIII went so far as to execute one of his closest advisors, ______, for refusing to recognize Henry as head of the English church.
Following the death of Henry VIII, England experienced a brief and fanatical reversion to Catholicism during the reign of
Catholic internal criticism and efforts at reform came only after Protestants started winning converts from Catholicism. (true/false)
Ignatius Loyola advocated
self-discipline and submission to Church authority
In addition to the Jesuits, reformist Catholic orders founded in the sixteenth century included all of the following EXCEPT
the Dominicans, who traveled about preaching the Church's mission and combating heresy
The reform efforts of the Council of Trent included all of the following EXCEPT
a few key doctrinal concessions to the reformers
In fiftheenth-century cities, about one person in five was a member of the clergy. (true/false)
By the end of the sixteenth century, more than half the original converts to Protestantism reverted to Catholicism. (true/false)
With regard to education and philosophy, Protestantism
generally endorsed humanism
Protestants permitted clerical marriage. (true/false)
In the Protestant social order, the condition of women changed in all of the following ways EXCEPT
they gained the right to hold political office
In the sixteenth century
20 percent of women never married, and 15 percent were unmarried widows
The western European family was conjugal, or __________; that is, it consisted of a father and a mother and two to four children who survived into adulthood.
After Ferdinand and Isabella, Spain's rulers were hostile to the Catholic Church. (true/false)
Cervantes's most famous work is __________.
Dramatists working in England at the same time as Shakespeare include Thomas Kyd and Christopher __________.