1400 endo hormones edited

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PANCREAS

produces Glucagon, Insulin, Somatostatin (hormones)

GLUCAGON, INSULIN, SOMATOSTATIN

hormones produced in the Pancreas?

GLUCAGON

released by alpha cells (in pancreas) to INCREASE the blood glucose level

INSULIN

released by beta cells (in pancreas) to DECREASE blood sugar

SOMATOSTATIN

produced in the Pancreas; inhibits secretion of insulin, glucagon, and GH from the anterior pituitary and gastrin from the stomach

ANTERIOR PITUITARY

produces TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone), FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone), LH (Luteinizing hormone), MSH (Melanocyte-stimulating hormone), GH (Growth hormone) & Prolactin/lactogenic hormone

TSH THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE

stimulates thyroid growth & secretion of the thyroid hormone from anterior pituitary

ACTH ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE

stimulates growth & secretion of Gluccorticoids from the adrenal cortex from anterior pituitary

FSH FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE

stimulates ovarian follicle to mature and produce estrogen; in the male, stimulates sperm production..anterior pituitary

LH LUTEINIZING HORMONE

acts with FSH to stimulate estrogen production; causes ovulation; stimulates progesterone production by corpus luteum; in male, stimulates testes to produce testosterone..ant. pit.

MSH MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONE

causes increase in synthesis and spread of melanin in skin

GH GROWTH HORMONE

stimulates growth by stimulating the epiphyseal plates of long bones and by increasing protein production

PROLACTIN OR LACTOGENIC HORMONE

Stimulates breast development during pregnancy and milk secretion after delivery of baby

POSTERIOR PITUITARY

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) & Oxytocin are found in this gland.

OXYTOCIN

stimulates uterine contractions; causes breast to release milk into ducts..post. pituitary

THYROID GLAND

Thyroxine T4 & Triiodothyronine T3, (thyroid hormones) & Calcitonin are produced where?

THYROXINE & TRIIODOTHYRONINE

(from the thyroid gland) control metabolic rate of all cells, aids in carbohydrate, fat & protein metabolism. Both are released in response to TSH

CALCITONIN

(from the thyroid gland), when stimulated, decreases blood calcium (Ca) by promoting excretion of Ca and phosphorus by the kidneys; also decreases bone resorption by maintaining adequate Ca levels.

PARATHYROID GLAND

produces Parathyroid Hormone

PARATHYROID HORMONE

when stimulated, increases blood calcium concentration by promoting resorption of Ca and phosphorus from the bones; by increasing blood calcium levels, bone formation is decreased.

ADRENAL CORTEX

produces Glucocorticoids (Cortisol, hydrocortisone), Mineralocorticoids & Sex hormones (androgen)

GLUCORCORTICOIDS, CORTISOL, HYDROCORTISONE

These (from the adrenal cortex) stimulate gluconeogenesis and increases blood glucose; anti-inflammatory; antimmunity, antiallergy; aids in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats & proteins

MINERALOCORTICOIDS

regulates electrolyte and fluid homeostasis by increasing sodium & water reabsorption; stimulates K excretion in the kidneys in adrenocortico gland

SEX HORMONES, ANDROGEN

(from the adrenal cortex) Stimulates sexual drive in females; in males, negligible effect

ADRENAL MEDULLA

Epinephrine & Norepinephrine are produced in what gland?

EPINEPHRINE & NOREPINEPHRINE

(found in the Adrenal Medulla) prolongs and intensifies sympathetic nervous response to stress, resulting in increased heart rate, constriction of blood vessels, dilation of bronchioles & hyperglycemia

ENDOCRINE GLANDS

Most disorders of these glands are a result of either over activity or under activity.

ENDOCRINE

Groups of cells secreting substances directly into the blood or lymph circulation and affecting another part of the body

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

This is slower and has longer lasting control over the various body activities and functions.. It exerts control through secretion of hormones that circulate through the blood.

PIUITARY GLAND, HYPOTHALAMUS, THYMUS, PANCREAS, OVARY, TESTES, ADRENAL GLAND, THYROID, PARATHYROIDS, PINEAL GLAND

glands of the endocrine system?

PANCREAS

lies horizontally behind the stomach. The head is attached to the duodenum and the tail reaches to the spleen. It has BOTH exocrine and endocrine functions.

ERNDOCRINE SYSTEM

composed of a group of various glands scattered throughout the body and secrete directly into the blood or lymph circulation.

GLUCAGON

secreted by alpha cells of pancreas, stimulates release of glucose by liver. always a low level of insulin being secreted along with this during times of fasting.

GLUCOSE

(in the blood) regulates the rate of insulin secreted by the pancreas?

HYPOTHALAMUS

located in the lower portion of the brain & produces secretions influencing the production & release of anterior & posterior pituitary hormones.

MASTER GLAND

Pituitary gland

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK

level of hormone in the blood is regulated by the homeostasis mechanism called:

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK

If the blood level for a specific hormone falls below normal, this causes the specific endocrine gland to produce more of the hormone. When increased to normal levels, this causes a decrease in production.

PARATHYROID GLANDS

usually 4 of these. produce hormones that regulate concentration of blood calcium & phosphorus.

PITUITARY GLAND

aggregation of cells specialized to secrete or excrete materials not related to their ordinary metabolic needs

PITUITARY GLAND

"master" gland, because its secretions influence other endocrine glands and body systems. Has an anterior and posterior lobe and is attached to the hypothalamus by a stalk called the Infundibulum. It is the size of a pea and is located in the sella turcica (small depression in sphenoid bone)

THYROID GLAND

butterfly-shaped and lies in the neck. Consists of two lobes (each side trachea, connected by an isthmus). stores iodine and produces hormones including thyroxine, triidothyronine and regulates metabolic rate for carbs, proteins and fats.

ADH ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE

(from the posterior Pituitary) stimulates water retention by kidneys to decrease urine secretion

135-145

Normal Syrum Sodium level in blood should be:

ACROMEGALY

hyperpituitarism occurs after epiphyseal closure of bones, there is bone thickening with transverse growth & tissue enlargement. Occurs between 30-50 yrs of age. Progressive enlargement of face & hands. Client has visual defects from pressure of pituitary tumor on optic nerve, soft tissue swelling or hypertrophy of face & extremities. DM, HYPERTENSION & HIGH RISK OF CARDIO DISEASE most serious health consequences.

ACROMEGALY

A client with this pituitary disorder will display thickened ears & nose, marked projection of the jaw. Will have moist, weak doughy handshake. Heart, liver & spleen may enlarge. Also diaphoresis, oily leathery skin, fatigue, heat intolerance, weight gain, headache, joint pain, hirsutism (in females) & sleep disturbance. May have decreased libido or impotence, oligomenorrhea (scanty menses) & infertility.

PARLODEL & SANDOSTATIN

drugs prescribed for acromegaly.

ADRENAL GLANDS

aka Suprarenal glands, located on top of each kidney. Consists of cortex & medulla. Help regulate sodium & electrolyte balance, sex characteristics, metabolism & response to stress.

ADRENAL CORTEX

part of a gland, helps bring up insulin, is responsible for anti-inflammatory, anti-immunity & anti-allergy processes. Secretes cortisol & hydrocortisone, mineralcorticoids & androgen

ADRENAL MEDULLA

part of a gland is responsible for stress responses, sympathetic nervous system, stimulation of epi & norepinephrine. Increases heart rate, constricts blood vessels & dilates bronchials.

FLORINEF & ALDOSTERONE

meds to replace mineralcorticoids (for fluid & electrolyte balance)

ADRENALECTOMY

Surgical removal of adrenal gland. Lifelong replacement of Glucocorticoids & Mineralocorticoids will be necessary w/bilateral procedure.

AGRANULOCYTOSIS

Acute condition causing a severe reduction in the number of granulocytes (basophils, eosinophils, & neutrophils).

AUTOSOMAL

Pertaining to a condition transmitted by any chromosome other than one determining sex.

CUSHINGS SYNDROME

condition that results from the hypersecretion of glutocorticoids from the adrenal cortex.

CHVOSTEK'S SIGN

Abnormal spasm of the facial muscles in response to a light tapping of the facial nerve. Noted in clients with hypOcalcemia

CRETINISM

Congenital lack of thyroid hormones causing defective physical development & mental retardation

DIABETES INSIPIDUS

The Hyposecretion (deficiency) of antidiuretic hormone from the posterior pituitary gland, which results in the failure of the tubular re-absorption of water in the kidneys, causes what disease?

DIABETES INSIPIDUS

Hypovolemia (abnormally low circulatory blood volume), circulatory collapse, unconsciousness & CNS damage, bladder distension, enlarged calyces & hydronephrosis are complications of what?

HCTZ

diuretic is used to treat nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

DDAVP

THE DRUG OF CHOICE prescribed for neurogenic & gestational diabetes insipidus, enhances reabsorption of water in kidney. a synthetic hormone. also prescribe Vasopressin

CENTRAL DI

This Diabetes insipidus is the most common & caused by a deficiency of ADH.

NEPHROGENIC DI

DI: can be caused by failure of the kidneys to respond to ADH. be caused by pyelonephritis, chronic renal failure, polycystic disease or medications

DIPSOGENIC DI

DI: is a defect in or damage to the thirst mechanism. Results in an extreme increase in thirst & then fluid intake, which suppresses ADH secretion, increasing urine output. Often caused by damage to the hypothalamus.

GESTATIONAL DI

DI: happens during pregnancy. Caused by placenta enzyme that destroys ADH in the mother.

NEUROGENIC DI

DI: may be caused by injury or ischemia to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, CNS infections, head injuries, neurosurgery or sickle cell disease.

EXOCRINE GLANDS

sweat glands & lacrimal glands are responsible for secreting substances directly into ducts that lead to the target area.

ENDOCRINE

Group of cells secreting substances directly into the blood or lymph circulation & affecting another part of the body. Responsible for: vital functions, responds to stress, growth & development, aids metabolism of carbs, proteins & fats. Reproductions. Maintains balance, fluids & electrolytes.

ENDOCRINE

secretions formed by these glands directly enter the blood or lymph circulation.

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

slower and has longer lasting control over the various body activities and functions.. It exerts control through secretion of hormones that circulate through the blood.

PIUITARY GLAND, HYPOTHALAMUS, THYMUS, PANCREAS, OVARY, TESTES, ADRENAL GLAND, THYROID, PARATHYROIDS, PINEAL GLAND.

What are the glands of the endocrine system?

EXOPHTHALMOS

Abnormal anterior protrusion of the eyeball, due to THYROTOXICOSIS. An accumulation of orbital fluid behind the eyeball, forcing it to protrude. Caused by Hyperthyroidism.

GIGANTISM

hyperpituitarism affects children, causing proportional overgrowth of all body tissues. Hyperplasia of anterior pituitary is usually the cause of the GH over-secretion. S & S: delayed puberty, dbl vision, increased sweating, large hands & feet w/thick fingers & toes & weakness.

ANTERIOR PITUITARY

Gigantism is usually caused by GH over-secretion of the Posterior or Anterior Pituitary?

GLUCAGON

Hormone secreted by the ALPHA cells of the pancreas, which stimulate release of glucose by the liver

GLUCAGON

This is released by alpha cells (in the pancreas) to increase the blood glucose level

GLYCOSURIA

Presence of excessive glucose in the urine

GOITER

Enlargement of the thyroid gland, a result of over-activity of the thyroid gland.

HIRSUTISM

Excessive body hair in a masculine distribution

HORMONE

Substance that initiates or regulates activity of another organ, system, or gland in another part of the body

HUMATROPE

Med (aka somatropin). Hormone that increases growth. (check for blood sugars & muscle skeletal pain because of growth)

HYPERGLYCEMIA

result of the absence of insulin

HYPERPITUITARISM

usually caused as a result of benign tumors. Usually 20-40 yrs of age. Most common hormones affect are GH & ADH. changes depend on client's age. child = GIGANTISM; adults = ACROMEGALY

HYPERTHYROIDISM

a result of excessive thyroid hormone secretion (overproduction of T3's & t4's).

HYPERTHYROIDISM

Graves disease, Basedow's disease, Parry's disease & thyrotoxicosis are different forms of this: (Grave's disease most common & occurs more in women over 20)

HYPERTHYROIDISM

S & S of this is weight loss despite increased appetite, fatigue, poor tolerance to heat, profuse perspiration. nervous, restless, irritable, difficult concentration, emotionally labile, mood swings, sleep disturbances & personality changes. fine tremors in fingers & tongue, shaky handwriting, clumsiness, trouble climbing stairs or dyspnea on exertion & rest. Skin warm & moist, salmon color, velvety texture, hair fine & soft.

HYPOPITUITARISM

This is a condition marked by metabolic dysfunction, sexual immaturity, & growth retardation when it occurs in childhood; Simmonds' disease & DI are examples of this.

DWARFISM

Deficiency of the GH results in _____ which becomes apparent by 6 months of age, infant exhibits growth retardation, chubbiness in lower trunk & short stature. Secondary tooth eruption delayed & delay in puberty. Sex hormones may not develop normally unless treated w/hormones. Accelerated pattern of aging.

HYPOPHYSECTOMY

removal of the pituitary gland

HYPOTHALAMUS

located in the lower portion of the brain & produces secretions influencing the production & release of anterior & posterior pituitary hormones.

HYPOVOLEMIA

Abnormally low circulatory blood volume. Complication of untreated D.I.

IATROGENIC

Caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures

INSULIN

Pancreatic hormone that aids in both the diffusion of glucose into the liver & muscle cells, and the synthesis of glycogen

INSULIN

hormone produced and secreted by the beta cells of the "islets of Langerhans" in the pancreas?

INSULIN

stimulates the active transport of glucose into muscle and adipose tissue cells, making it available for cell use.

MYXEDEMA

Severe hypothyroidism in adults that results from Hyposecretion of thyroid hormone. (aka hypothyroidism)

MYXEDMA COMA

disorder that results from persistently low production of thyroid hormones. CAUSE: acute illness, rapid w/drawal of thyroid meds, anesthesia, surgery, hypothermia & use of sedatives & opioids

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK

blood level for a specific hormone falls below normal, this causes the specific endocrine gland to produce more of the hormone. When increased to normal levels, this causes a decrease in production. This is HOMEOSTASIS MECHANISM.

PAROXYSMAL

symptom begins and ends abruptly

PARATHYROID GLANDS

produce hormones which regulate concentration of blood calcium & phosphorus. Imbedded in posterior surface of thyroid. Increases blood calcium.

PARLODEL

med for acromegaly. a non-hormonal drug that activates dopamine receptors to inhibit release of GH & prolactin. stimulate ovulation, so Birth Control pills should be backed up with propholatics./ bromocriptine

pituitary hormones

Pituitary tumors more often affect ANTERIOR portion of the pituitary? rarely malignant & replace glandular tissue & enlarge the sella turcica.

PITUITARY GLAND

aggregation of cells specialized to secrete or excrete materials not related to their ordinary metabolic needs

PITUITARY TUMOR

tumors start with a headache unrelated to stress or other factors. Visual problems caused by tumor pressing on optic nerve. Also include personality changes, dementia, amenorrhea, impotence, lethargy & weakness. Cold intolerance, increased fatigue, constipation & may have seizures. Damage is done by tumor invasion of normal tissue.

PROLACTIN

Deficiency of this results in absent postpartum lactation, amenorrhea & sparse or absent axillary & pubic hair. There may also be manifestation of thyroid or adrenal cortex failure.

RADIOACTIVE IODINE UPTAKE SCAN

test measures iodine absorption

SANDOSTATIN

aka octreotide. drug used for Acromegaly. Clients w/DM should closely monitor their blood sugar level.

SIADH

from excess of ADH. POSTERIOR pituitary gland continues to release ADH, causing the kidneys to reabsorb excess water, which decreases urine output & increases fluid volume. Client will have hyponatremia, water retention, weight gain, concentrated urine, muscle cramps & weakness. The low osmolality of blood allows fluid to leak out of vessels & causes brain swelling.

LOW SALT, LOW FLUIDS

SIADH will have what kind of restrictions on their diets?

LASIX & FLORINEF

drugs used to treat SIADH

SIMMONDS DISEASE

total absence of ALL PITUITARY secretions. Aka panhypopituitarism. Results from surgery, infection, injury or tumor. Also after difficult labor B/C thrombosis formation during/after delivery. Progresses to bradycardia, hypotension, premature wrinkling & atrophy of thyroid & adrenal glands.

SOMOGYI PHENOMENON

In response to hypoglycemia, the release of glucose-elevating hormones (epinephrine, Cortisol, glucose), which produces a hypERglycemic state.

TSH

Deficiency in a child will result in severe growth retardation, cold intolerance; constipation; increased or decreased menstrual flow, lethargy, dry, pale puffy skin & bradycardia. Thought process may also be slowed

TETANY

Sharp flexion of the wrist and ankle joints, involving muscle twitching or cramps

THYROID GLAND

lies in the neck. Consists of two lobes (each side of trachea, connected by isthmus). stores IODINE and produces, stores & releases hormones including thyroxine, triidothyronine and regulates metabolic rate for carbs, proteins and fats.

T3 & T4

hormones responsible for regulation of metabolism, brain development, breathing, heart rate, temperature and the nervous system. Production regulated by release of TSH from anterior pituitary gland.

THYROID SCAN

Instructions would be: stop taking synthroid 4-6 weeks before scan & no foods with iodine.

THYROID STORM

Acute, potentially fatal exacerbation of hyperthyroidism. May result from manipulation of thyroid gland during surgery, severe infection or stress.

THYROIDECTOMY

Surgical removal to treat persistent hyperthyroidism or thyroid tumors.

TRANSSPHENOID HYPOPHYSECTOMY

incision in superior maxillary gingival to remove the pituitary gland. Drainage afterward should be clear. If CSF, should be reported to Dr. Check for meningitis. No straining, vomiting or sneezing. Use incentive spirometer instead of coughing. No tooth brushing for 2 weeks. Avoid lifting & bending at waist for 2-3 months after surgery.

PITUITARY GLAND

Transfrontal and Transsphenoid hypophysectomy are two surgical approaches used to remove what?

TRANSFRONTAL HYPOPHYSECTOMY

used to remove large tumors affecting the Pituitary Gland.

TROUSSEAU'S SIGN

sign of hypocalcemia . Carpal spasm caused by inflating a blood pressure cuff above the client's systolic pressure and leaving it in place for 3 minutes.

SIADH

causes the kidneys to reabsorb excess water, which decreases urine output & increases fluid volume. Posterior pituitary gland disorder. Treat w/Furosemide (lasix) , Declomycin & or Florinef

HYPOPITUITARISM

causes metabolic dysfunction, sexual immaturity & growth retardation in children. Simmonds disease & DI in adults.

ACTH

A deficiency results in fatigue, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weight loss & depigmentation of the skin & nipples. Vital sign during stress would show fever & hypotension.

SIMMONDS DISEASE

happens because of HYPOpituitarism. S & S are extreme weight loss, general debility, lethargy, pallor, dry yellowish skin, loss of libido, amenorrhea & intolerance to cold. Leads to loss of axillary & pubic hair & atrophy of genitalia & breasts. Leads to bradycardia, hypotension & wrinkling of skin, atrophy of thyroid & adrenal glands.

ACTH, TSH/ADRENAL, SEX HORMONES

TX: Simmond's Disease for a lifetime because pituitary gland is hypoactive.

HYPOPITUITARISM

Simmonds disease & Diabetes insipidus, Dwarfism are all the result of what?

HYPOTHYROID

Cretinism, Myxedema & Hashimoto's is a result of what?

HASHIMOTO'S

most common cause of hypothyroidism, an autoimmune disease producing antiperoxidase antibodies, which destroy enzyme necessary for production of T3 & T4. ^ incidence in Downs & Turner's Syndrome people.

MYXEDEMA

This disease is a result of Hypothyroidism. S & S are related to reduced metabolic rate (energy loss, fatigue, forgetfulness... weak pulse, bradycardia). Complications affect almost every system. THIS CAN BE LIFE THREATENING!

SYNTHROID

synthetic drug used to treat myxedema (hypothyroidism).

COLD, HOT

With a thyroid scan there are nodules. ____ Nodule means iodine is not being taken up. ____ nodule means iodine is being taken up.

HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

This is a condition resulting from overactivity of one or more of the parathyroid glands. Results in increased secretion of PTH, which causes calcium to LEAVE the bones & accumulate in the blood and cannot be excreted in the urine. Hypercalcemia is a result.

HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

Hypercalcemia is a result of this:

ADENOMA

Most common cause of Hyperparathyroidism?

HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

S & S of this are: Polyuria, chronic low-back pain, bone tenderness, renal calculi. Also may have nausea, vomiting, anorexia, constipation, lethargy or drowsiness. Change in LOC, disorientation, stupor, coma or personality changes & loss of memory.

HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

Muscle weakness, atrophy of the legs, joint hyperextensibility, long bone skeletal deformity (because calcium is leeched out of bones), or hyporeflexia & Renal problems; is a result of what?

LASIX

treat Hyperparathyroidism, (b/c hypercalcemia) - geared to DECREASE Ca level in blood.

HYPERTHYROIDISM

Lasix, Calcitonin, plicamycin, magnesium & phosphate based drugs are used to treat what?

HYPOPARATHYROIDISM

This results in a decreased serum calcium level because less PTH is secreted and they regulate the serum calcium level. Can be the result of an autoimmune disorder or congenital absence of these glands.

TETANY

A characteristic sign of hypoparathyroidism is what?

CALCIUM

Tetany, which is muscle spasms & tremors are caused by a lack of this and is present in Hypoparathyroidism.

HYPOPARATHYROIDISM

S&S of this pretty much has to do with anything resulting in loss of calcium. Note: Muscles need Calcium in order to relax.

CUSHINGS DISEASE

This is an adrenal disorder. Caused by hypo secretion of glutocorticoids from adrenal cortex which result in increased ACTH from Pituitary, which increases production of Cortisol. Cortisol controls allergic reaction, regulates ACTH, BP, fluids, metabolism of fat, glucose & immune system.

CUSHINGS

- Adrenal - up glutocorticoids - up ACTH Pituitary - Up Cortisol - Immunity Backs off - Up ACTH Stops Hormones - Down ACTH Too much hormones - Up Glucogenesis - Up Calcium Retention - Obesity, Water Retention

ADDISONS

- HypoAdrenal - Down Mineralcorticoids - Down Glucocorticoids - Down Androgens

ADDISONS

occurs when more than 90% of the adrenal gland is destroyed. Autoimmune disease, TB, Histoplasmosis, HIV & meningococcal pneumonia

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