HGD Test 1

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Development

The pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span.

Traditional Approach

Perspective that emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence, little to no change in adulthood, and decline in old age.

Life-Span Approach

Perspective that empasizes development change throughout childhood and adulthood.

78

The current life-expectancy is _____ years.

Biological

Dimension that focuses on changes in an individual's physical nature.

Cognitive

Dimension that focuses on changes in though, intelligence and language.

Socioemotional

Dimension that focuses on changes in relationships with other people, changes in emotion, and changes in personality.

Prenatal Period

The _____ last from conception to birth (9 months) and involves tremendous growth.

Infancy

_____ lasts from birth to 18-24 months and involves dependence on adults and development of many psychological activities.

Early Childhood

_____ lasts from end of infancy to 5-6 years and involves preschool years and self-sufficiency and increased play.

Middle and Late childhood

_____ lasts from 6-11 years and involves reading, writing and arithmatic and focus on achievement and self-control.

Adolescence

_____ has varying endpoints lasting from 10-12 to 18-22 years and involves rapid physical changes and pursuit of independence and identity.

Early adulthood

____ lasts from late teens to early 30's and involves personal and economic independence and selecting a mate.

Middle adulthood

_____ lasts 40-60 years and involves social involvement and resposibility and assisting the next generation.

Late adulthood

_____ lasts 60-70's to death and involves life review, adjustment to new social roles, and is the longes developmental spans.

First age

The _____ of development includes childhood and adolescence.

Second stage

The _____ of development includes prime adulthood (20's-50's)

Third Age

The _____ of development includes approximately 60-79 years of age.

Fourth Age

The _____ of development is approximately 80 years and older.

Nature

_____ proponents argue that an evolutionary and genetic foundation produces commonalities in growth and development.

Nurture

_____ proponents emphasize the importance of both biological and social environment.

Psychoanalitic

_____ theories describe development as primarily unconscious. True understanding requires analyzing the symbolic meaning of behavior. Early experiences with parents extensively shape development.

Freud's

_____ theory focuses on sexual impulses changes throught development and five stages of psychosexual development.

Erikson's Psychosocial

_____ thoery focuses on our desire to affiliate with other people and proposes 8 stages of development.

Piaget's Cognitive Developmental

_____ theory stresses conscious thought and empasizes the processes of organization and adaptation.

Behavioral and Social Cognitive

_____ theories: development is observable behavior that can be learned through experience.

Bandura's Social Cognitive

______ theory: Behavior, environment, and cognition are key factors in developement.

Chromosomes

Thread like structures made up of DNA

Genes

Units of heredity information in each chromosome.

DNA

A complex double-helix molecule that contains genetic information,

Proteins

Building blocks of cells and regulators that direct the body's processes.

20,000-22,000

Humans have ____ genes.

46; 23

All cells have ____ chromosomes arranged in _____ pairs.

Mitosis

Reproduction of cells in which the nucleus (including chromosomes) duplicate and cell divides.

Meosis

Cell division that forms sperm and eggs. Each cell divides twice forming 4 cells with 23 unpaired chromosomes.

Identical (monozygotic)

_____ twins develop from a single zygote that splits in two.

Fraternal (dizygotic)

_____ twins develop from seperate eggs and sperm.

Down Syndrome

_____ is cause by the presense of an extra copy of chromosome 21.

Germinal

____ period: First 2 weeks after conception; zygote created. Rapid cell division.

Embryonic

_____ period: occurs from 2-8 weeks after conception.

Fetal

_____ period: begins 2 months after conception and lasts until birth. Begins when blastocyst attaches to uterine wall.

Trophoblast

Outer layer of cells that provides nutrition and support for the embryo.

Amnion

A bag that contains clear fluid in which the embryo floats.

Umbilical Cord

Connects the baby to the placenta

Placenta

Group of tissues containing the mother and baby's intertwined blood vessels.

24 weeks

Viablity is currently _____.

Teratogen

Any agent that can cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes

Psychoactive Drugs

Drugs that act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods.

Stage 1

_____ of the birthing process: uterine contractions begin at 15-20 minutes apart and last up to 1 minute, becoming closer and more intense. Lasts 12-14 hours.

Stage 2

_____ of the birthing process: Baby's head begins to move through dialated cervix opening and eventually emerges from the mothers body. Lasts approximately 45 minutes.

Stage 3

_____ of the birthing process: umblicical cord, placenta, and other membranes are detached and expelled.

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assesment Scale (NBAS)

Test typically performed 24-36 hours after birth. Asseses newborn's neurological development, reflexes, and reactions to people and objects.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS)

Test that provides a more comprehensive analysis of newborn's behavior, neurological and stress responses, and regulatory capacities. Asseses the "at-risk" infant.

5 1/2 pounds

Low birthweight infants way less that _____ at birth.

Preterm Infants

Infants born three weeks or more before full-term.

Postpartum

_____ period lasts about 6 weeks or until the mother's body has completed its adjustment and has returned to nearly pre-pregnant state.

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