Biology of Vertebrates

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flashcards for our first lab practical

Order: Esociformes
Family: Esocidae
SciN: Esox niger

Long, Narrow fish with split tail, pointed mouth (possible bottom feeder), 4 small fins

Order: Perciformes
Family: Sparidae
SciN: Logodon rhomboides

short anal fins, long strips, split tail, small (~5in), middle mouth, short dorsal fins and extend over whole body.

Order:Percopsiformes
Family: Aphredoderidae
SciN: Aphredoderus sayanus

tiny fish, full tail, thin and small fins, smooth surface

Order: Amniiformes
Family: Amiidae
SciN: Amia Calva

Large fish (~10in), very scaly, narrow and flat head, dot on top of tail, dorsal fins all down back, small bottom fins, whole body is tail-like.

Family: Squalidae
Order: Squaliformes

looks like mini shark, long, narrow, flat head, large eye, bottom mouth, split tail, holes on top, lizard-like smooth skin

Class: Agnatha

lamprey, long, skinny, smooth. like a worm with no fins. no jaw has a round suction mouth.

Class: Chondrichthyes
Order: Torpediniformes

huge, flat, electric ray. Eyes on top.

Class: Chondrichthyes
Order: Myliobatiformes

Sting Ray in a jar, no picture; smaller and darker than electric ray. Skinny tail, flat body.

Order: Clupeiformes
Family: Clupeidae
SciN: Dorosoma cepedianum

dark scales on top, lighter towards the bottom, middle mouth. Medium sized (6-8in), low pectoral fin under the gills, dorsal fins start on mid back and are small. Large split tail

Order: Salmoniformes
Family: Salmonidae

speckled, smooth body. small dorsal fin on midback, subtly split tail, small protrusion right above the tail, long and skinny with small sleek pectoral fins

Order: Mugiliformes
Family: Mugilidae
SciN: Mugil cephalus

small fish (3in), split tail, reddish on top, white body, small fin to the back and above the gills (w/spot), 2 sets of fins on top and bottom, smooth body

Order: Atheriniformes
Family: Atherinidae
SciN: Labidesthes sicculus

1.5 inches (SMALL), large eye, line down middle of the body, pointed mouth, posterior dorsal fin is very small

Order: Perciformes
Family: Elassomatidae
SciN: Elassoma zonatum

less than 1 inch long, stripes, split tail and a few small fins, spot in the middle

Order: Aciperiseriformes
Family: Polyodontidae

Paddlefish, large tail, long snout, bottom mouthed. No fins on top, 6 fins on top, 1 dorsal fin at very back? On print out

Order: Gasterosteiformes
Family: Syngnathidae
Species: Syngnathus lonisiane

long and skinny, string-like, long mouth with eyes on top. tiny tail with 1 dorsal fin

Order: Osteoglossi
Family: Hiodontidae
SciN: Hiodon tergisus

Mooneye, large eye, 1 small dorsal fin. PRINTOUT

Order: Lepisosteiformes
Family: Lepisosteidae
SciN: Lepisosteus osseus

longnose gar, fins above and below the tail, dark tail, long snout with teethlike structures in the mouth, no dorsal fin.

Order: Siluriformes
Family: Ictaluridae
SciN: Ictalurus punctatus

channel catfish; large eye, white bottom, large anal fin, small fin protruding above the tail, tall fin by the head

Order: Siluriformes
Family: Ictaluridae
SciN: Ameirus natalis

yellow bull head; much larger than channel cat, fin past head, smaller eyes, drier skin, larger operculum, flat, wide head.

Order: Siluriformes
Family: Ictaluridae
SciN: Notorus miurus

brindled madtom. smallest fish in this family, brown stripes, flat head, solid tail

Order: Siluriformes
Family: Ictaluridae
SciN: Notorus gyrinus

tadpole madtom; bluish/purple, flat head but smaller than natalis, smaller eyes, 2nd smallest in family.

Order: Siluriformes
Family: Ictaluridae

All have similar fins, bodies, all have catfish tentacles(?), generally have flatter heads, look for adipose tissue connection

Class: Osteichthyes
Order: Lepidosireniformes

S. American lungfish; over a foot long, 4 tentacle like projections from body, small eyes, flat tails, looks like an eel

Order: Anguilliformes
Family: Anguillidae
SciN: Anguilla rostrata

American eel; dark brown, 2 small fins on anterior end, tail is over 1/2 of the body length, two nasal protrusions

Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Castostomidae
SciN: Hypentelium nigricans

hogsuckers; speckled brown, sucker mouth, flat head

Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Castostomidae
SciN: Carpiodes cyprinus

quillback; smallest in the family, dorsal fin continuous with tail, bottom feeder mouth

Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Castostomidae
SciN: Minytrema melanops

spotted sucker; shiny scales and gills, bottom feeder mouth

Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Castostomidae
SciN: Moxostoma poecilurum

blacktail redhorse; distinctive stripe on the tail, slightly spotted body, small fins and split tail

Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Castostomidae
SciN: Moxostoma erythrum

golden redhorse;largest and most generic looking, flattest head of all, one complete color

Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Castostomidae
SciN: Erimyzon oblongus

creek chubsucker; prominent anal fin- same size as the tail, one complete color

Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Castostomidae

all have same fins; 1 anal, 1 dorsal, and 2 pectoral. all have bottom feeder mouth

Order: Perciformes
Family: Centrarchidae
SciN: Micropterus salmoides

large mouth bass; dorsal fins down the back, stripe down the middle, dark spots on end of the tail, eyes toward the top, prominent mouth. longer bodied fish in family

Order: Perciformes
Family: Centrarchidae
SciN: Micropterus punctulatus

spotted bass; similar to large mouth but with small dots under the middle line. longer bodied fish in family

Order: Perciformes
Family: Centrarchidae
SciN: Lepomis megalotis

longear sunfish; round bodied fish, dorsal fins to tail, dark fin off of gill. Longer ear spot than others

Order: Perciformes
Family: Centrarchidae
SciN: Lepomis microlophus

redear sunfish; tall dorsal fins, earspot is on gills and has a white border around it

Order: Perciformes
Family: Centrarchidae
SciN: Lepomis macrochimus

bluegill; round body, darker color than rest of the family, dark spot on back of the dorsal fin

Order: Perciformes
Family: Centrarchidae
SciN: Poxomis annularis

white crappie; shiny fish, long and prominent anal fin, shorter section of dorsal fins than others

Order: Perciformes
Family: Centrarchidae
SciN: Chaenobryttus gulosus

warmouth; dark bottom fins and tail, dark spot on gills.

Order: Perciformes
Family: Centrarchidae
SciN: Ambloplites ariommis

shadow bass; spotty, dorsal fins to tail, smaller dot on the gill, light bottom fins compared to warmouth

Order: Perciformes
Family: Centrarchidae

bass are lengthy fish and others are round.

Order: Pleuronectiformes
Family: Soleidae
SciN: Trinectes maculatus

small fish, flat body, stripes and spots all over body, fins from head to tail on top and bottom, no visible eye or mouth

Order: Perciformes
Family: Percidae
SciN: Percina Caprodes

logperch darter; long skinny body, longitudinal stripes with one in the middle, dark spot on front of the tail, large eye size relative to head, short dorsal fins, protruding pectoral fins (2 on side, 2 underneath)

Order: Perciformes
Family: Percidae
SciN: Percina sciera

dusky darter; dots down the midline, 4 pectoral fins, anal fin are the same size as dorsal fins (very small)

Order: Perciformes
Family: Percidae
SciN: Percina nigrofasciata

blackbanded darter; lighter color, generally the same features as sciera, looks very generic

Order: Perciformes
Family: Percidae
SciN: Etheostoma nigrum

johnny darter; small/tiny dots

Order: Perciformes
Family: Percidae
SciN: Etheostoma rupestre

rock darter; light body, stripe down back, dot on head, little spot below eyes

Order: Perciformes
Family: Percidae
SciN: Ammocrypta beani

sand darter; larger, slimmer, nothing around eye

Order: Cyrpinodontiformes
Family: Fundilidae
SciN: Fundulus olivaceous

black spotted top minnow; smal, stripe down middle, white around black pupil at the eye, no pect. fins, just anal and small dorsal fin

Order: Cyrpinodontiformes
Family: Fundilidae
SciN: Fundulus catenatus

northern studfish; pectoral fins and solid eye. dark upper half of body with spots, light lower

Order: Cyrpinodontiformes
Family: Poecilidae
SciN: Gambusia affinis

W. mosquitofish; smaller, white around eye, large tail, dark around gill

Order: Cyrpinodontiformes
Family: Fundilidae
SciN: Poecilia latipinna

sailfin molly; shiny gill, larger size, stripes at top of the head, ring around eye

Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Cyprinidae
SciN: Notemigonus crysoleucas

golden shiner; shiny gills, medium sized, short dorsal fins near tail, shadow on half of body, line into tail, scales over base of anal fin, different shape than others in the family

Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Cyprinidae
SciN: Semotilus atromaculatus

creek chub; stripe down middle, spot on tail, visible gills, split tail, no fins on body surface, 4 fins underneath, small dorsal fin, dot at front of dorsal fin

Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Cyprinidae
SciN: Luxilus chrysocephalus

striped shiner; darker stripe along the back, same fins as others

Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Cyprinidae
SciN: Notropis texanus

weed shiner; lighter than others, stripe darker toward the tail, same fins and eyes as others

Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Cyprinidae
SciN: Cyprinella venusta

blacktail shiner; large spot on tail, darker scales, stripe darker toward tail

Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Cyprinidae
SciN: Pimephales notalus

bluntnose minnow; line down body, small dot at start of the tail

Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Cyprinidae
SciN: Campostoma oligolepis

taller dorsal fin, stripe down middle is darker by tail, distinct over bite mouth

Class: Osteichthyes
Order: Acipenseriformes
Family: Acipenseridae

sturgeons; spiny projections, lobed tail with fins, mouth that looks like a beak

Order: Perciformes
Family: Sciaenidae
SciN: Aplodinotus

freshwater drum; large fish, dorsal fins down back to tail, bottom mouth

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