Weather and Climate Chapter 1 Test

30 terms by mrssherman104 

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air pressure

1. the result of the weight of a column of air pushing down on an area
2. air pressure is greatest at earth's surface because of gravity

atmosphere

1. a mixture of gases that surrounds the earth
2. contains oxygen, protects us from the sun and is always changing

mesosphere

1. coldest layer
2. temperature decrease as altitude increase

stratosphere

1.layered gases, thin air
2. ozone is in this layer

thermosphere

1.highest layer
2. particles move fast and are far apart
3. temperatures can reach 1000 degrees Celsius

troposphere

1. densest layer
2. 90% of atmosphere's mass
3. closest to earth - layer we live in

4 layers of atmosphere from lowest to highest:

1. troposphere
2. stratosphere
3. mesosphere
4. thermosphere

What causes different temperatures at different altitudes?

the temperature is warm if the air contains gases that absorb solar energy
the temperature is colder if there are fewer of these gases

What is the atmosphere made up of?

78% nitrogen
21% oxygen
1% other

convection

the transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gas

radiation

the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves

thermal conduction

the transfer of energy as heat through material.

it is absorbed by Earths surface

What happens to most of the energy from the sun?

What may cause global warming?

increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere

3 states of matter

solid, liquid, gas

global warming

a gradual increase in average global temperature

How are convection currents created?

warm air rises, cool air sinks

local winds

1. move short distances
2. caused by temperature differences

polar easterlies

global winds blowing from the poles to 60 degrees latitude

trade winds

winds that blow from 30 degrees latitude almost to the equator

westerlies

blow toward the poles and carry moist air over the US

wind

movement of air caused by differences in air pressure

Coriolis Effect

The apparent curving of the path of winds and ocean currents due to the earth's rotation

pressure belts

separate bands of high and low pressure, found about every 30 degrees of latitude

air pollution

the contamination of the atmosphere by the introduction of pollutants from human and natural sources.

primary pollutants

1. pollutants that are put directly into the air by human or natural activity
2. examples: carbon monoxide, dust, smoke, chemicals

secondary pollutants

1. pollutants tht form when primary pollutants react with other primary pollutants or with naturally occurring substances such as water vapor
2. examples: ozone and smog

human-caused air pollution sources

1. transportation (largest source)
a. this could be reduced by driving hybrid cars that run
on both electricity and gasoline
2. industrial plants/power plants
3. indoor air pollution

acid precipitation

Rain, sleet, or snow that contains a high concentration of acids

ozone hole

1. caused by CFCs
2. allows more UV radiation to reach Earth (this can cause skin cancer)

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