a system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power
Age of Reason
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions; Enlightenment era.
Balance of Power
distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers; Wrote Spirit of Laws
The famous prison whose storming is often marked as the beginning of the French Revolution
Principal minister to Louis XIII. He used his strong influence over Louis XIII to insure the French monarchy as the embodiment of France.
Heavily influenced by Henrietta Maria, Dissolved Parliament in 1629, Created illegal taxes, feared attack from Scotland, English civil war, Grand Remonstrance; Extremely Catholic
The Restoration king after Cromwell's Commonwealth period; Secretly Catholic and had fights with Parliament constantly
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Divine Right of Kings
The belief that God gives monarchs the right to rule
Edict of Nantes
This was the document published by Henry IV that granted liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship to the Huguenots
English Bill of Rights
To make clear the powers of England's monarchy in 1689, the English Parliament drafted a list of things that they could not do like no taxing without permission from Parliament; William and Mary had to sign to it before taking the throne
English Civil War
Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king
French romantic painter
When James II abdicated his throne, he was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange; Called "Glorious" because there was no bloodshed
French Protestants influenced by John Calvin
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy; Wrote "The Social Contract"
Johann Sebastian Bach
A German composer who wrote many famous pieces for the organ.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are given from the consent of the people and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property;
King James I
Ruler of Scotland who also took control of England after Elizabeth's death from 1603 to 1625. He chartered the Virginia Company of London;He was frequently conflicted with Parliament,
The hereditary right of a monarch to rule
Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.
This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France
A legal document written by English lords in 1215 that stated certain rights and limited the power of the King
"The Incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution (Reign of Terror). He set out to build a republic of virtue. The leader of the Committee of Public Safety.
A system in which power is based on individual ability or achievement
Miguel de Cervantes
Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form.
A French general, political leader, and emperor of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Bonaparte rose swiftly through the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor in 1804. He conquered much of Europe but lost two-thirds of his army in a disastrous invasion of Russia and fled the country
1807 Napoleon's reformed law code, a legal system based on enlightenment ideas, it guaranteed the equality of all citizens before the law, Napoleon's greatest comprehensive system of laws
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
Pride in one's nation
The idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
This English Puritan led an army in the English Civil War and became Lord Protector of the English Commonwealth
Peter the Great
Ruled Russia from 1682 to 1725, wanted closer ties to western Europe, modernize and strengthen Russia; Had an amazing army
Peter von Metternich
Austrian Prince who called the Congress of Vienna
The theological doctrine that human reason rather than divine revelation establishes religious truth
Reign of Terror
The period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed. At the end, Robespierre was executed himself
A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
An implicit agreement among people that results in the organization of society
Thirty Years' War
War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia