Antilipemic: reduces release of VLDL from liver into circulation. Lowers LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and raises HDL cholesterol.
Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker prototype: vasoselective (less cardiac depression than verapamil, diltiazem); used in angina, HTN.
Endogenous vasodilator released from vascular endothelium; neurotransmitter. Mediates vasodilating effect of acetylcholine, histamine, and hydralazine. Active metabolite of nitroprusside and of nitrates used in angina. Used as pulmonary dilator in neonatal hypoxia.
Antianginal vasodilator prototype: releases nitric oxide (NO) in smooth muscle of veins, less in arteries, and causes relaxation. Standard of therapy in angina (both atherosclerotic and variant).
Adrenoceptor agonist prototype: acts at b1- and all a adrenoceptors; used as vasoconstrictor. Causes reflex bradycardia.
Atypical antipsychotic; high-affinity antagonist at 5-HT2 receptors with minimal extrapyramidal side effects; improves both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Proton pump inhibitor prototype: irreversible blocker of H+/K+ ATPase proton pump in parietal cells of stomach. Used in GI ulcers, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
5-HT3 receptor blocker prototype: very important antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy; also used postoperatively to reduce vomiting.
Neuraminidase inhibitor: inhibits release and facilitates clumping of mature virions of influenza A and B and decreases their infectivity. Shortens duration of flu symptoms.
Muscarinic cholinoceptor blocker: used to relieve bladder spasm and incontinence.
Antineoplastic plant alkaloid: cell cycle (M phase)-specific agent; inhibits mitotic spindle disassembly.
Chelator, immunomodulator: copper and sometimes lead, mercury, arsenic. Used in Wilson's disease and rheumatoid arthritis.
Penicillin prototype: active against common streptococci, grampositive bacilli, gram-negative cocci, spirochetes (drug of choice in syphilis), and enterococci (if used with an aminoglycoside); penicillinase susceptible.
Irreversible nonselective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor. Backup drug for atypical depression.
Long-acting barbiturate: used as a sedative and for tonic-clonic seizures. Facilitates GABA-mediated neuronal inhibition and may block excitatory neurotransmitters. Partial renal clearance that can be increased by urinary alkalinization. Chronic use induces liver drug-metabolizing enzymes and ALA synthase.