What are the characteristics that link charophyte algae to the green algae (chlorophyta)?
Homologous chloroplasts with chlorophyll a; chlorophyll b and carotenoids as accessory photosynthetic pigments; cellulose in cell walls; starch as storage carbohydrate
What are the characteristics that link the land plants (Kingdom Planta) to the charophyte algae?
Rosettes of cellulose-synthesizing enzymes in the plasma membrane; peroxisome enzymes; sperm ultrastructure; phragmoplast; sporopollenin; nuclear & chloroplast DNA; Homologous chloroplasts with chlorophyll a; chlorophyll b and carotenoids as accessory photosynthetic pigments; cellulose in cell walls; starch as storage carbohydrate
Identify the characteristics that distinguish plants from charophytes and facilitate their life on land.
Multicellular dependent embryos (protected by gametophyte); spores protected by tough sporopollenin wall; apical meristems; cell walls strengthened with lignin; vascular systems; cuticle composed of cutin; true roots, stems & leaves; stomates; mycorrhizae; secondary compounds; mechanical defenses.
Explain the difference between the use of the collective term "bryophytes" and the same name for the monophyletic clade of non-vascular plants (Phylum Bryophyta).
Collectively the bryophytes include all non-vascular plants including the clades (phyla) Hepatophyta (liverworts), Anthocerophyta (hornworts), and the Bryophyta (mosses). The clade or phylum Bryophyta refers to the monophyletic grouping of plants that includes only the mosses.
How do bryophytes (collectively) differ from other members of Kingdom Planta?
Bryophytes do not possess a vascular system; the gametophyte generation is dominant and conspicuous.
What traits allowed the seedless vascular plants to grow tall, and why might increased height have been advantageous?
Lignin-strengthened cell walls; evolution of true roots to support a larger plant; vascular system to transport water and nutrients to and from plant organs. Increased height allowed taller plants to exploit a formerly unoccupied niche and successfully compete for light. Spore dispersal is more far-reaching from greater heights than that taking place at ground level.
large division of chiefly freshwater eukaryotic algae that possess chlorophyll a and b, store food as starch, and cellulose cell walls
"giant celled," pond organisms, zygotic life cycle --> haploid adult
homologies (symplesiomorphy) of charophyta with land plants
sporopollenin, rosette complexes, peroxisome enzyme, sperm ultrastructure, phragmoplast, nuclear and chloroplast genes
derived traits (synapomorphy) in plants (absent in charophytes)
apical meristems, sporic lifecycle (alternation of generations), sporophyte, gametophyte, embriophytes
The embryophytes are the most familiar group of plants,often called land plants because they live primarily in terrestrial habitats. Include trees, flowers, ferns, mosses, and various other green land plants;e complex multicellular eukaryotes with specialized reproductive organs.
a durable polymer that covers exposed zygotes of charophyte algae and forms the walls of plant spores, preventing them from drying out.
A capsule in plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop.
sporangia are attached to these modified leaves, these organize into club-shaped strobili (cones)
A diploid cell, also known as a spore mother cell, that undergoes meiosis and generates haploid spores.
An alignment of cytoskeletal elements and Golgi-derived vesicles across the midline of a dividing plant cell.
Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length.
bears the sex organs; either archegonia or artheridia
The reproductive organ of bryophytes, consisting of the male antheridium and female archegonium; a multichambered jacket of sterile cells in which gametes are formed.
male gametangia; produce sperm and release them into the environment
a waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation that prevents desiccation in terrestrial plants
fatty substance that forms a protective layer
tissue that conducts water and nutrients through the plant body in higher plants
compact cluster of spore-bearing leaves produced by some non-seed vascular plants
cluster of sporangia usually on underside of a fern frond
A mass of green, branched, one-cell-thick filaments produced by germinating moss spores.
the hairlike fibers that anchor a moss to the soil and take in water from the soil
a minute rudimentary plant contained within a seed or an archegonium
Pore-like openings in leaves that allow gases (CO₂ and O₂) and water to diffuse in and out of the leaves.
A hard material embedded in the cellulose matrix of vascular plant cell walls that functions as an important adaptation for support in terrestrial species.
the underground stem of a fern
a slender or elongated structure that supports a plant or fungus or a plant part or plant organ
the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants
In lycophytes, a small leaf with a single unbranched vein.
A leaf with a highly branched vascular system, characteristic of the vast majority of vascular plants.
Referring to plants in which a single type of spore develops into a bisexual gametophyte having both male and female sex organs.
A term referring to a plant species that has two kinds of spores: microspores that develop into male gametophytes and megaspores that develop into female gametophytes.
a division of nonflowering plants characterized by rhizoids rather than true roots and having little or no organized vascular tissue and showing alternation of generations between gamete-bearing forms and spore-bearing forms
Phylum including liverworts (Bryophytes)
Phylum including Hornworts (Bryophytes)
Phylum including club mosses (Seedless vascular)
Phylum including ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns (Seedless vascular)
Gametes are produced by
Spores are produced by