Congress of Vienna
conservative, reactionary meeting, led by Prince Metternich, restore Europe to Prerevolution time and ended the Napoleonic Wars
conservative British secretary who represented Great Britain in the Congress of Vienna
Russian liberals (predominantly members of the army) who staged a revolt against Tsar Nicholas I on the first day of his reign in December 1825 (they failed)
1819, it discouraged liberal teachings in southern Germany (Censorship imposed by Metternich)
restricting access to ideas and information
Italy- a secret nationalist group which first arose during the time of Napoleonic occupation. Name from charcoal burners who had camps in woods outside of towns. Met in secret at these camps. Secret because nationalism was considered revolutionary at time of Napoleon and in post Congress Europe.They promised mild reform, equality, and justice.
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry
United States portrait painter who patented the telegraph and developed the Morse code
French representative at the Congress of Vienna and limited the demands of other countries upon the French
Russia's orthodox Christianity: members of Russian leadership who said that Russia is unique from the West, and needs to remain so
Created by congress of Vienna 1815, to assemble the remaing German States
University of Berlin
oldest university in Berlin; founded in 1810 by the Prussian liberal Wilhelm von Humboldt
edicts that Charles X issued; demolished the Charter, censored the press, reduced the electorate
Otto von Guernicke
German scientist, inventor, and politician. His major scientific achievement was the establishment of the physics of vacuums (very sucky! very sucky!).
Building erected in Hyde Park, London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age
Standard of Living debate
The disagreement among historians about industry's impact
Leader of English Romanticism who published works in the countryside, "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud", "The World is Too Much with Us"
Was an important British Romantic poet. His works include "She walks in Beauty" and the unfinished "Don Juan." Many consider him to embody the spirit of Romanticism. He died from an illness contracted while in Greece, where he was supporting their independence movement.
"Father of Modern Conservatism:" A conservative leader who was deeply troubled by the aroused spirit of reform. In 1790, he published "Reforms on The Revolution in France", one of the greatest intellectual defenses of European conservatism. He defended inherited priveledges in general and those of the English monarchy and aristocracy. Glorified unrepresentitive Parliament and predicted reform would lead to much chaos/tyranny.
a political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.
This was the political idea in which the people regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions and the proper state and society remained those before the French Revolution which rested on a judicious blend on monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, and respectful commoners
"Principles of Political Economy and Taxation" (1817); "iron law of wages": rise of population means rise of amount of workers, which cause wages to fall below the subsistence level, resulting in misery and starvation
the branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management
an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence
Devastating famine that began in the 1840s. Led to violent resistance to British control of Ireland and immigration to the U.S. The potato crops in Ireland became diseased and the Irish starved to death (1/4 of the population died).
Reform Bill of 1832
Legislation passed in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class; failed to produce democracy in Britain.
French poet, novelist, and dramatist "Les Misérables," "The Hunchback of Notre Dame"
Laissez-Faire economics; Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade, wrote "The Wealth of Nations"
John Stuart Mill
English Philosopher, wrote "On Liberty", Essay that talked about problem of how to protect the rights of individuals and minorities in the emerging age of mass electoral paricipation. Advocated right of workers to organize, equality for women, and universal suffrage
A Political reform movement, that favored universal man sufferage and secret ballots, claimed to create a politcal democracy
the first president of the French Republic (for two terms), also the last emperor. As emperor, he was called Napoleon III and he was the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte.