(1469-1527) author of The Prince (16th century); emphasized realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain power; one of most influential authors of Italian Renaissance.
focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages.
cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe; began later than Italian Renaissance around 1450; centered in France, Low Countries, England, and German; featured greater emphasis on religion than Italian Renaissance.
King of France in the 16th century; regarded as Renaissance monarch; patron of arts; imposed new controls on Catholic church; ally of Ottoman sultan against Holy Roman emperor.
introduced moveable type to western Europe in 15th century; credited with greatly expanded availability of printed books and pamphlets.
originated in 15th century among peasants and artisans of western Europe, featuring late marriage age, emphasis on the nuclear family, and a large minority who never married.
(1483-1546) German monk; initiated Protestant Reformation in 1517 by nailing 95 theses to door to Wittenberg church; emphasized primacy of faith over works stressed in Catholic church; accepted state control of church.
general wave of religious dissent against Catholic church; generally held to have begun with Martin Luther's attack on Catholic beliefs in 1517; included many varieties of religious belief.
form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head, at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death.
French Protestant (16th century) who stressed doctrine of predestination; established canter of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva; encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education; Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America.
restatement of traditional Catholic beliefs in response to Protestant Reformation (16th century); established councils that revived Catholic doctrine and refuted Protestant beliefs.
a new religious order founded during the Catholic Reformation; active in politics, education, and missionary work; sponsored missions to South America, North America, and Asia.
Edict of Nantes
grant of tolerance to Protestants in France in 1598; granted only after lengthy civil war between Catholic and Protestant factions.
Thirty Years War
war within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia.
Treaty of Westphalia
ended Thirty Years War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-- either Protestant or Catholic.
English Civil War
conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king.
class of working people without access to producing property; typically manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agricultural economy, or urban poor; in Europe, product of economic changes of 16th and 17th centuries.
reflected resentment against the poor, uncertainties about religious truth; resulted in death of over 100,000 Europeans between 1590 and 1650; particularly common in Protestant areas.
culminated in 17th century; period of empirical advances associated with the development of wider theoretical generalizations; resulted in change in traditional beliefs of Middle Ages.
Polish monk and astronomer (16th century); disproved Hellenistic belief that the Earth was the center of the universe.
(December 27, 1517 - November 15, 1630) was an astronomer and mathematician who was a prominent figure in the scientific revolution.
published Copernicus's findings (17th century); added own discoveries concerning laws of gravity and planetary motion; condemned by the Catholic church for his work.
English physician (17th century) who demonstrated circular movement of blood in animals, function of heart as pump.
(22 January 1561 - 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, author, and scientist. He was an influential member of the scientific revolution, and is best known for work on the scientific method.
established importance of skeptical review of all received wisdom (17th century); argued that human reason could then develop laws that would explain the fundamental workings of nature.
(1643-1727) English scientist; author of Principia Mathematica; drew together astronomical and physical observations and wider theories into a neat framework of natural laws; established principles of motion; defined forces of gravity.
concept of God current during the Scientific Revolution; role of divinity was to set natural laws in motion, not to regulate once process was begun.
(1632-1704) English philosopher who argued that people could learn everything through senses and reason and that power of government came from the people, not from divine right of kings; offered possibility of revolution to overthrow tyrants.
concept of government developed during rise of nation-states in western Europe during the 17th century; featured monarchs who passed laws without parliaments, appointed professionalized armies and bureaucracies, established state churched, imposed state economic policies.
(1638-1715) French monarch of the late 17th century who personified absolute monarchy; best example of absolute monarchy
English overthrow of James II in 1688; resulted in affirmation of parliament as having basic sovereignty over the king.
originated in England and Holland, 17th century, with kings partially checked by significant legislative powers in parliaments.
Frederick the Great
Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy.
intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century; featured scientific advance, application of scientific methods to study of human society; belief that rational laws could describe social behavior.
established liberal economics (Wealth of Nations 1776); argued that government should avoid regulation of economy in favor of the operation of market forces.
(October 5, 1713 - July 31, 1784) a French Enlightenment figure best known for his work on the first encyclopedia.
(1750-1797) Enlightenment feminist thinker in England; argued that political rights should extend to women.
refers to the spread of deep interest in acquiring material goods and services spreading below elite levels, along with a growing economy capacity to afford some of these goods. While hints of mass consumerism can be found in several premodern societies, it developed most clearly, beginning in western Europe, from the 18th century onward.
2. Protestant Remformation
3. Absolute Monarchy
4. The Enlightenment
Eras of the Transformation of the West
Boccaccio and Petrarch
both wrote on love and pride; wrote stories in Italian; had a new style of writing that included more focus on everyday life rather than gods.
4 Impacts of Italian Renaissance
1. military tactics because of wars in city-states.
2. leaders justified their authority of the general well-being of the city-state.
3. city-states introduce a regular exchange of ambassadors.
4. merchants improved banking techniques.
Shakespeare & Cervantes
wrote a new set of classics for literary traditions in major western languages.
married in late 20's & have a nuclear family of parents and children. Marriage is now based on access to property.
began Protestant reformation in 1517; believed that the Bible is the only thing that should be followed; wrote the 95 Theses.
-protested against the selling of indulgences
- monasticism is wrong
- priests could marry
- people should have the Bible in their own language
sought the participation of all believers in church administration which had political implications of encouraging the ideal of wider access to the government; strong in Switzerland, parts of Germany & France, the Netherlands, England, and Scotland.
helped to defend the Catholic church in southern Europe, Austria, Poland, much of Hungary, and key parts of Germany.
3 Things True of Thirty Years War
1. Reduced German prosperity & power for a full century.
2. Political independence for Netherlands.
3. Some German states chose one religion, & some the other.
3 Typical Things of the Commercial Revolution
1. substantial imports of American bullion (silver & gold).
2. Formation of great trading company.
3. Stimulation of manufacturing.
3 Responses to the Commercial Revolution in the West
1. Greater material wealth, greater family life.
2. Rising waves of popular protest caused by massive dislocation.
3. Greater belief in personal achievement and the demystification of nature.
Typical of 16th Century Absolute Monarchies
1. professional armies
2. cessation of parliamentary governments
3. growing bureaucracy