Came up with a system where you apply logic to your experiences.
Analyzed logic and ethics.
Fontenelle's Plurality of Worlds
Bernard de Fontenelle made no scientific experiments and made no scientific discoveries however he possesed a knowledge of scientific work from an earlier time.
presented as an intimate conversation between a lady aristocrat and her lover.
conversation takes place under the stars
book allowed for science to not only be the monopoly of experts but also be a part of literature
explained the scientific advancements in a "lighthearted fashion"
contributed to the growth of skepticism of religion at the end of the 17th century by portraying the churchas an enemy of scientific progress
French Protestant, who spent almost the whole of his productive life as a refugee in Holland. His life was devoted entirely to scholarship, and his erudition was second to none in his, or perhaps any, period. Much of what he wrote was embedded in technical religious issues such as that of the Real Presence , for a century he was one the most widely read philosophers ever. In particular, his Dictionnaire historique et critique was the single most popular work of the eighteenth century. The content of this huge and strange, yet fascinating work is difficult to describe: history, literary criticism, theology, obscenity, and much more, in addition to philosophical treatments of toleration, the problem of evil, epistemological questions, and much more. His influence on the Enlightenment was, whether intended or not, largely subversive. Said Voltaire: "the greatest master of the art of reasoning that ever wrote, Bayle, great and wise, all systems overthrows
James Cook's Travels
This book was an account of James Cook's adventures as he traveled around the newly discovered islands of Tahiti, New Zealand, and Australia. This made Europeans aware of new highly developed civilizations that had their own customs and beliefs
John Locke's tabula rasa
locke's theory of knowledge especially influenced the philosophes of the enlightenment. tabula rasa = blank mind. the idea that knowledge is derived from our environment, not our heredity. this concept was published in his work essay concerning human understanding.
Philosophes were known as the European intellectuals of the eighteenth century. These philosophers applied reason to the study of philosophy, history, science, politics, economics and social issues. All in all, their main goal was rational and intentional progress. On the other hand, they id not support organized religion as many of them were deists. They believed that religion should be reasonable and that the knowledge of the natural world had nothing to do with religion. A few examples of philosophes are Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot, and David Hume.
Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws
1748. the single most influential book of the century, that exhibits the internal tensions of the enlightenment. a century later these speculations are associated with sociology. he is the father of notion of "separation of powers". he applied the scientific method to the social and political arena in search of "natural laws". he created the idea of checks and balances within a government which was created by a means of a separation of powers, or balance among branches of government, the branches being executive, legislative and judiciary.
Voltaire's Treatise on Toleration
Voltaire was an important advocate of "The Enlightenment." He argued in favor of "deism," a vague substitute for traditional religion which acknowledged a creator and some sort of divine justice, but rejected most of the other fundamental beliefs of Christianity. Instead he preached that everyone needs to tolerate each other. He argues that false religion is better than none. It is obvious that his objections to Atheism are insignificant and that he looks on religious beliefs as useful, but not necessarily true. It should be remembered that atheism was strictly illegal in Voltaire's time, and he had been imprisoned repeatedly and finally exiled for his challenges to traditional religion. Deism provided a convenient (and legal) screen for his attacks on Christianity; but many scholars believe that despite his statements to the contrary, he was in fact an atheist. His arguments for religious freedom have become commonplaces in the modern Western world, even among religious believers
A belief system in which one believed that a spirit did create the universe, but after creating the world it left. Usually the people who followed this religion were scientists, and some followers still attended Christian church. It is also believed that the idea of the spirit or God that created the universe is based on the Christian idea of God. Today, this is related to the agnostic belief, which varies among believers, in which one believes that there was once a God, there is one but they're not sure which religion it pertains to, or they're unsure
Denis Diderot's Encyclopedia
18th century, France, written by Denis Diderot
-a systematic dictionary of the sciences, arts, and trades
-its purpose was to "change the general way of thinking"
-represented the thought of the Enlightenment, spread the ideas of the Englightenment
Scottish philosopher who believed that a science of man was possible. He argued that observation and reflection, grounded in "systematized common sense" made a science of man possible. He has been called a "pioneering social scientist" in his book Treatise on Human Nature, which he subtitled "An attempt to introduce the Experimental Method of Reasoning into Moral Subjects".
school of French thinkers in the 18th cent. who evolved the first complete system of economics. They were also referred to simply as "the economists" or "the sect." The founder and leader of physiocracy was François Quesnay. His most ardent disciple, Victor de Mirabeau, was the author of the physiocratic tax doctrine; Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Numeurs and Mercier de la Rivière elaborated on Quesnay's and Mirabeau's ideas.
(June 4, 1694 - December 16, 1774) was a French economist of the Physiocratic school. He is known for publishing the Tableau economique (Economic Table) in 1758 , which provided the foundations of the ideas of the Physiocrats. This was perhaps the first work to attempt to describe the workings of the economy in an analytical way, and as such can be viewed as one of the first important contributions to economic thought
Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations
Time: published in 1776
Topic: In the book a strong attack on mercantilism was made, condemning the use of tariffs to protect home industries. If one country can supply another
country with a product cheaper than the latter can make it, it is better to purchase than to produce it. To Smith, free trade was a fundamental economic
principle, his second principle was his labor theory of value, his third was that the state should not interfere in the economic affairs.
To leave alone" or "To let be"
Introduced by Adam Smith. A belief that the government shouldn't interfere.
If the government does take action, as a result, society would start to rely on the government
Jean-Jacques Rousseau's The Social Contract and the general will
1762, in which ROusseau tried to harmonize individual liberty with governmental authority. It was an agreement on the part of an entire society to be governed by its general will. The majority repersented the community's will. He believed what was best for all was what was best for an individual also. Everybody was responsible for making the general will because the creation of laws could never be delegated to a single parliamentary institution. He believed true freedom was adherence to laws that one has imposed on oneself.
Another influential treatise by Rousseau in 1762.
One of the Enlightenment's most important works on education
Written in the form of a novel
Rousseau's fundamental concern was that education should foster rather than restrict children's natural instincts.
VIewed by many as the founder of modern European feminism. In 1792, she wrote the Vindication of the Rights of Woman, where she saw two contradictions in how women were viewed. One was that women should have the same rights as men and the other was that if women obeyed men then this would be like the arbitrary power of monarchs over their subjects
Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Written by English writer Mary Wollstonecraft
Book about the two contradictions of the views of wwomen in the enlightenment
Really started the feminist movement
Salons bacame a large factor in the spread of ideas in the Enlightenment. Salons were basically homes that philosophers, thinkers, and nobels were invited to to engage in conversations and studies. Most ideas that were expressed here were many that were unwelcome in the royal court.
In certain countries such as France the rigid government made salons a huge factor in the spread of ideas.
Women also saw an opportunity to affect the ideas of the government. Being the hostesses of most salons, women were able to affect the ideas of the philosophers and officials.
Marie-Therese de Geoffrin
She was host to many philosophes and other important people during the French Enlightenment. She was one of the most influential women in the salon attractions
In the 1730's the Rococo style affected architecture and decorations all over Europe. Rococo art emphasized grace and gentle action; it often had many curves and no harsh geometric patterns. The Rococo style was based on pleasure, happiness, and love. Rococo architecture was easily used to decorate Baroque architecture. Antoine Watteau was an artist who's artwork reflected upper-class pleasure, but also had a sadness to it, along with nature that resembled Rococo.
Time: Late 18th Century
Neoclassical artists admired the simplicity and dignity of ancient Greece and Rome. The evacuations of Herculaneum and Pompeii were especially influential to some of the artists.
Example: Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825) showed many classical elements. He recreated a historic Roman scene where brothers swore an oath to their father, showing their willingness to die for the country in the "Oath of the Horatii." His Neoclassical style that showed moral seriousness and an emphasis on honor and patriotism made him very popular in the French Revolution