Swiss banker and French director-general of finances. Revealed that a large portion of royal expenditures went to pensions for aristocrats and other royal court favorites.
Became minister of finance. Encouraged internal trade, to lower some taxes, and to transform peasants' services to money payments. He urged the introduction of a new land tax that would require payments from all landowners regardless of their social status.
Charles Alexandre de Calonne
Met with Calonne, demanded that the aristocracy be allowed greater share in the direct government of the kingdom. Drawn from the upper ranks of aristocracy and the church.
Assembly of Notables
The notables claimed that they had no right to consent to new taxes and that such a right was vested only in the medieval institution of the Estates General of France. The notables believed that calling the Estates General would produce a victor for the nobility over the monarchy.
Estates General of France
Louis XVI dismissed Calonne and replaced him with Etienne, archbishop of Toulouse and chief opponent of Calonne.
Etienne Charles Lomenie de Brienne
Brienne turned to this group to get funding for the national debt, they refused and reduced its existing contribution to the government.
Assembly of Clergy
Yearly grant from the church to the monarchy.
The branch of the French Estates General representing all of the kingdom outside of the nobility and the clergy.
presented a pamphlet that captured the spirit of the Third Estate's representatives.
In this pamphlet, Sieyes contrasted the vital contributions of the Third Estate to the nation with its exclusion from political and social privilege.
"What is the Third Estate?"
"list of grievances" submitted to the French crown with the Estates General met in 1789.
Cahiers de doleances
a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate in to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people.
The National Assembly moved to a nearby tennis court and its members took an oath to continue to sit until they had given France a constitution.
Tennis Court Oath
The National Assembly renamed, composed of a majority of members drawn from all three orders, who shared liberal goals for the administrative, constitutional, and economic reform of the country.
National Constituent Assembly
More than 800 French citizens marched to Bastille, a fortress that once held political prisoners, in search for weapons for the militia.
The militia of Paris, offered its command to the Marquis de Lafayette.
The National Guard's insignia, an emblem with red, white, and blue stripes. Became the revolutionary war badge and eventually the flag of France.
The days on which the populace of Paris redirected the course of the revolution.
An intensification of the peasant disturbances that had begun in the spring and swept across the French countryside.
The National Constituent Assembly issed the Declaration of the Rights f Man and Citizen, which was a statement of broad and political principles before the new French Constitution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
October 5th, a crowd of armed Parisian women marched to Versailles demanding more bread and milled about the palace, demanded the king and his royal family return to Paris.
Women's March on Versailles
The Constitution of 1791 established a constitutional monarchy, the major political authority of the nation would be a unicameral Legislative Assembly.
A man paying annual taxes equal to three days of local labor wages, and only they could vote. They chose electors, who then in turn voted for the members of legislature.
In 1791, Olympe composed a Declaration of the Rights of Women, which he ironically addressed to Queen Mare Antionette.
Olympe de Gouges
Written by Olympe, it demanded that women be regarded as citizens and not merely as daughters, sisters, wives, and mothers of citizens.
Declaration of the Rights of Women
The National Constituent Assembly abolished the ancient French provinces and established 83 departments of generally equal size names after geographical features.
Crushed the attempts of urban workers to protect their wages by enacting the Chapelier Law, which forbade workers' associations.
Government bonds based on the value of confiscated church lands issued during the early revolution.
Transformed the Roman Catholic Church in France into a branch of the secular state, and created embittered relations between the French church and state.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Individuals who were removed from their clerical functions because they did not support the Civil Constitution.
Aristocrats who left France and settled in countries near the French border
Leopold II and Frederick William II issued this to promise to intervene in France to protect the royal family and to preserve the monarchy of the other major European powers agreed.
Declaration of Pillnitz
Radical republican party during the French Revolution that displaced the Girondins.
Group of Jacobins in the Legislative Assembly that assumed leadership.
Committee of representatives from the sections of the city that the government of Paris passed to.
When the Paris Commune executed or murdered about 1,200 people who were in the city jails.
The French radical legislative body
"Without knee-breeches" , the lower-middle class and artisans of Paris
The Jacobins who worked with the sans-culottes to carry the revolution forward.
King convicted of conspiring against the liberty of the people and the security of the state, beheaded.
A conservative leader who was deeply troubled by the aroused spirit of reform, he defended inherited privileges and those of the English monarchy and aristocracy, and predicted reform would lead to much chaos/tyranny.
One of the greatest intellectual defenses of European conservatism, regards the French revolution as an applicant of a blind rationalism that ignored the historical realities of political developement and the complexities of social relations.
"Reflections on the Revolution in France"
Period of time when the French Revolutionary state used extensive executions and violence to defend the Revolution and suppress its alleged internal enemies.
Reign of Terror
Established by the Convention that became more important and eventually enjoyed almost dictatorial power.
Committee of Public Safety
The most prominent leaders of the Committee of Public Safety, were all strong republicans who opposed the weak policies of the Girondists.
Jacques Danton & Maximilien Roberspierre & Lazare Carnot
The government seized all control of resources in preparation to war, and required all young men to enlist in the army.
"Levee en masse"
Society of militant citizens who wanted to fight the internal enemies for war production.
Society of Revolutionary Republican Women
The Convention declared this to be the Cathedral of Notre Dame as part of French de-Christianization.
Temple of Reason
Extreme sans-culottes leaders
Permitted the revolutionary tribunal to convict suspects without hearing substantial evidence.
Law of 22 Prairal
The deistic cult that reflected Rousseau's vision of a civic religion that would induce morality among citizens.
Cult of the Supreme Being
On this day members of the Convention shouted Robespierre down whenever he rose to make a speech. He was arrested and executed that night.
Ninth of Thermidor
Reaction against radicalism of the French Revolution, associated with the end of Reign of Terror and establishment of the Directory.
The period of the executions of former terrorists.
"The white terror"
Reflected the Thermidorian determination to reject both constitutional monarchy and democracy
Constitution of the Year III
The upper body of legislature that was composed of men over forty years of age who were either husbands or widowers.
Council of Elders
The lower body of the legislature that was was composed of men at least thirty who were either married or single.
Council of 500
The executive body that was to be a five-person group chosen by the Elders from a list submitted by the Council of 500.
Lead by Gracchus Babeuf, he and his followers called for more radical democracy and more equality of property.
Conspiracy of Equals
-Committee of Public Safety
Order of the Revolutionary Governments...