Elected: Jan 1789
Oath of Office: April 30th, 1789
In Office: 1789- 1797 (8 years)
Political Party: None (assigned as Federalist)
Elected From: Virginia
Vice President: John Adams
Farewell Address, Presidential Cabinet, Use of military, So help me God, Serving 2 terms
Purpose: to advise him
Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson
Secretary of War: Henry Knox
Secretary of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton
Attorney General: Edmund Randolf
Judiciary Act of 1789
Established our courts
Involved Chief Justice John Jay and 5 associate Justices. Circuit and District courts
Reason for Hamilton's Plan
To ensure US paid off debts, improve economy, and build its credit.
Hamilton's 4 points and Compromise
1. Public Credit
2. Pay Debt
3. Tax on Whiskey
4. Chartered Bank of the US
Outcome of Hamilton's Compromise
Soldiers sold their bonds for cheap to speculators; also most southern states paid off their debts and had nothing to gain from this plan.
Washington's City/ Federal City
Designed By: Pierre L'Enfant
Description: Broad avenues, originated from two points (capitol building and white house)
Purpose of Bank of U.S.
Create a strong national economy. Taxes deposited in and issued paper money and made loans which helped
Domestic vs. Foreign Policy
Problems w/ Tariffs and taxes: feared the government would be ruled by the wealthy (mostly southerners who had to import more)
Whiskey Tax: taxed liquor/whiskey to raise money but southerners opposed b/c they had to pay more
Whiskey Rebellion: Farmers rebelled against whiskey tax collectors & Washington used state militia to stop rebellion (shows strength of gov't)
July 14, 1789 a mob stormed Bastille (a prison and arsenal) thus starting the French Revolution.
During American Revolution the new gov't signed the Treaty of Alliance in 1778. The 2 nations pledges to ally each other
ForeignPolicy: Neutrality Proclamation 1793
Prohibits America from fighting in the war between France or England. Would not support either side, the US is also too young/unprepared to fight a war. AMERICA IS NEUTRAL (:
ForeignPolicy: Jay's Treaty 1794
Written after American sailors were captured by British ships.
1. British pays for damages for American ships captured by West Indies
2. British left forts in Ohio River Valley after America paid debts to British Merchants
Washington's Farewell Address 1796
1. Remain neutral in relations w/ other countries
2. Warned against dangers of Political Parties
3. Advised our nation against permanent alliances
4. Precedents of serving 2 terms
5. Dangers of Sectionalism
Developed to find the basis of gov't. Formed because of different opinions on how gov't runs. Also based on religious differences and beliefs
Jefferson's Demo-Republic party became the Republican Party of today.
responsibility of a citizen to ensure the country continues to prosper even through great sacrifices
Elected from: Massachusetts
Political Party: Federalist
Vice President: Thomas Jefferson
Elected from: Virginia
Political Party: Democratic- Republican
something overthrowing something else
Rebellion against a government
To declare legally void
Rights that belong to the states (southerns states mostly supported this)
Cause: the French are capturing the American ships/sailors because they are upset about the Jay's Treaty between American and England
Effect: Adams sent people to work with France but 3 French agents were sent to America to offer bribe (X,Y,Z) Adams refuses to go to war and increases size of military and French back down
High Federalists: Hamilton formed High Federalists Party and encourages Adams to go to war but Adam refuses.
Convention of 1800
Conclusion to the XYZ affair. Agreement between Napoleaon and America for French to stop seizing
American ships. France and US = allies.
AKA Treaty of Mortefontaine
President can deport any foreigner if he thinks they are dangerous to our country. Immigrants must wait 14 years to become a citizen instead of 5 years.
Citizens can be fined or jailed for saying anything bad about the Government or elected officials
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Secretly written by Madison and Jefferson opposing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Set a precedent establishing more power to the states and allowing them to declare a law unconstitutional.
The Alien and Sedition acts eventually expired under Jefferson's presidency
In Office: 1801-1809
Political Party: Democratic-Republican
Elected From: Virginia
Vice Presidents: Aaron Burr
Election of 1800
Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr both got 73 votes but Hamilton referred to Jefferson as the lesser of the two evils. AKA Revolution of 1800
The President and Vice-President had to run separately or on different ballots
Why did the Federalists lose favor?
Alien/Sedition Acts, distrusted many ordinary citizens- Jefferson painted as anti-individual rights.
What did the Federalists accomplish?
Adams: Kept us out of was w/ France "Treaty of Mortefontaine
Hamilton: Bank of the U.S. and economic plans that continued even under demo-republican rule
Hands off! Government couldn't deal with private business owners and must interfere as little as possible in economic/foreign affairs.
Secretary of Treasury
Albert Gallatin: Democratic-Republican but uses Hamilton's economic plan. Cut seze of federal government and military to pay off state debts
Whiskey Act (Jefferson's policy)
Repealed it and fired tax collectors to help pay for debt
Sedition Act (Jefferson's policy)
Ended this act and put a presidential pardon on those who were arrested from it.
Marbury vs Madison
Chief Justice: John Marshall
He declares Judiciary Act 1789 unconstitutional. Shows that Supreme Court has equal power to other branches
Established: Federal Courts have the power of Judicial review (power to declare a law unconstitutional.)
Treaty with Spain: Gave the Americans free navigation rights of the Mississippi River and the right to trade with New Orleans.
Successful leader of an enslaved African Revolution in Haiti. Led revolts and helped drive Napoleon out of Haiti.
First black independent republic
Who: Napoleon/France-- Jefferson sent Monroe to Paris to buy New Orleans from French for $10 mil Napoleon offered entire Louisiana Purchase for $15 mil.
What: Center of our country- doubled our size
Where: West of Mississippi. Louisiana to Montana
When: April 30, 1803. Treaty signed and purchase made
Why: Napoleon needed $$ to pay off war debt in Europe & decided he wasn't going to take over the colonies when unsuccessful in conquering Haiti.
Barbary Coast States
North African Nations would protect the American ships from pirates in Mediterranean in return for yearly bribes. Like a toll for safety!!
France and England: went to war in 1803. Napoleon wanted to conquer Europe. U.S. wanted to stay neutral but Britain violated their Neutral Rights
Embargo Act 1807
Stopped trade with all foreign nations mainly France and Britain but this act hurt American merchants more than foreign countries
Non intercourse Act 1809
Repealed the Embargo Act and opened trade with all ports except for France and England until they agree to stop violating U.S. shipping