History III Intellectual Vocabulary

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92 terms · Unit three

Italian Renaissance

A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture, from roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century

Franscesco Petrarch

One of the major literary figures of the Italian reniassance; an Italian Author and Humanist.

Giotto

Florentine painter who gave up the stiff Byzantine style and developed a more naturalistic style

Vivialdis

Two Genoese Brothers who attempted to find a western route to the "Indies"; disappeared in 1291; precursors of thrust into southern Atlantic.

Prince Henry the Navigator

Portugese prince responsible for the direction of a series of expiditions along the African Coast in the 15th Century; Marked the beginning of western European Expansion.

Cape of Good Hope

Souther tip of Africa; first circumvated in 1488 by the Portugese in search of a direct route to India.

Vasco De Gama

Portugese captain who first reached India in 1497; established early Portugese dominance in the Indian Ocean.

Ferdinand Magellan

Spanish Captain who in 1519 initiated the first circumnavigation of the globe; died during the voyage; allowed Spain to claim the Philippines.

Columbian Exchange

biological and ecological exchange that too place following the Spanish establishment of colonies in the New World; peoples of the New world came to Africa came to the New World; animals, plants and diseases of the two hemispheres were transferred.

Mercantilism

Economic theory that stressed goverments' promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economies in oder to improve tax revenues; popular during the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe.

Fransisco Pizarro

Led the conquest of the Incan Empire of Peru in 1535; by 1540, most of the Inca possesions fell to the Spanish.

Cape Colony

Dutch colony established at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652 initially to provide a coastal station for the Dutch seaborne Empire; by 1770 settle ments had expanded sufficiently to come into contact with the Bantus.

Seven Years War

Fought both in Continental Europe and also in overseas colonies in 1756 and 1763; resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria, and English seizures of colonies in India and North America.

European Style Family

Originated in the 15th century among the peasant and artisans of West Europe, featuring late marriage age, emphasis on the nuclear family, and a large minority who never married.

Proletariat

Class of working people without acces to producing property; typically manufaturing workers, paid laborers in an agricultural economy, or urban poor workers; In europe, they were the product of economice changes in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Abslolutism

The Principle and the Exercise of complete and unrestricted power in Government.

Enlightenment

Intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century; featured scientific advance, application of scientific methods to the study of human society, and the belief that rational laws could describe social behavior.

Peter I [the great]

Son of Alexis Romanov; ruled 1689- 1725; continued the growth of absolutism and conquest; included a more definite intrest in changin selected aspects of the economy and culture based on European models.

Catherine The Great

german born Russian tsarina in the 18th century; ruled after the assasination of her husband; gave the appearance of enlightened rule; accepted western culturral influence; maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantry.

Boyars

Russian Aristocrats; possesed less political power then did their counterparts in western Europe.

Encomiendas

Grants of Indian laborers made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Mesoamerica and South America; basis for the earliest forms of coerced labor in Spanish colonies.

Hispaniola

First Island in the Carribean to be settled by Spaniards; settlement founded by Columbus on second voyave to the New world.

Hernan Cortes

Led Expidition of 600 to coast of mexico in 1519 conquistador responsible for defeat of Aztec Empire; captured Tenochitlan

New Spain

Spanish colonial possesions in Mesoamerica; included most of central Mexico; based on the Imperial system of the Aztecs.

Pedro de Valdivia

Spanish conquistador; conquered Araucanian Indians of Chile and established the city of Santigao in 1541

Francisco Coronado

Leader of the Spanish expidition into the Northern Frontier region of New Spain; entered into what is now the United States in search of mythical cities of gold.

Potosi

Mine located in upper Peru [Modern day Bolivia]; Largest of the New world silver mines; produces 80 percent of all Peruvian silver.

Haciendas

Rural Estates in Spanish colonies in the New world; produced Agricultural products for consumers in America; basis of wealth and power for local aristocracy.

Consulado

merchant guilds of Seville; enjoyed virtual monopoly rights over goods shipped to America and handled much of the silver recieved in return.

Treaty of Todesillas

signed in 1494 between Castile and Portugal; clarified spheres of influence and rights of possesion in the New World; Brazil and everything east went to Portugal, everything to the west of Brazil to Spain

Letrados

University trained lawyers from Spain in the New World; judicial core of Spanish colonial bureaucracy; exerscised both legislative and administrative functions.

Rocopilacion

Body of laws collected in 1681 for Spanish possesions in the New World; basis of law in the Indies

Council of Indies

Body within the Castilian government that issued all laws and advised the King on all matters dealing with the Spanish colonies of the New World

Viceroy

a person appointed to rule a country of province as the deputy of the soveriegn; two __________ were the major divisions of Spanish colonies in the new world: one in Lima, the other in Mexico city.

Captaincies

Strips of land along the Brazilian coast granted to minor Portugese nobles for development; enjoyed limited success in developing the economy.

Rio de Janeiro

Brazilian port; close to mines of Minas Gerias; importance grew with gold strikes; became colonial capital in 1763.

Sociedad de Castas

American social system based on racial origins; penninsulares at the top, and then creoles, then mixed races [mulattos, etc.,] and Indians at the bottom.

Peninsulares

People living in the new World Spanish colonies but born in Spain.

Creoles

Whites born in the New World; dominated local Latin American economies; ranked just beneath Peninsulares.

Amigos del Pais

Clubs and associations dedicated to improvements and reform in Spanish colonies flourished during the 18th century called for material improvements rather than political reform.

War of Spanish Succesion

Resulted from Bourbon family's succesion to Spanish throne in 1701; ended by Treaty of Utrecht in 1713; resulted in recognition of Bourbons, loss of some lands, grants of commercial rights to English and French

Charles III

Spanish enlightened monarch; ruled from 1759 to 1788; instituted fiscal, administrative, and military reforms in Spain and its empire.

Jose de Galvez

Spanish minister of the Indies and chief architect of colonial reform; moved to eliminated Creoles from upper bureaucracy of the colonies; created intendants from local government.

Tupac Amaru

Mestizo leader of Indian revolt in Peru; supported by many among lower social classes; revolt eventually failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution.

El Mina

Most important of early Portuguese trading factories in forest zone of Africa.

Nzinga Mvemba

King of Kongo south of Zaire River from 1507 to 1543; converted to Christianity and took title Alfonso I; under Portuguese influence attempted to Christianize all of kingdom.

Royal African Company

Chartered in 1660s to establish a monopoly over the slave trade among British merchants; supplied African slaves to colonies in Barbados, Jamaica, and Virginia.

Triangular Trade

Commerce linking Africa, the New World colonies, and Europe; slaves carried to America for sugar and tobacco transported to Europe.

Indies Piece

Term utilized within the complex exchange system established by the Spanish for African trade; referred to the value of an adult male slave.

Asante

Established in Gold Coast among Akan people settled around Kumasi; dominated by Oyoko clan; many clans were linked under Osei Tutu after 1650.

Osei Tutu

Member of Oyoko clan of Akan peoples in Gold Coast region of Africa; responsible for creating unified Asante Empire; utilized Western firearms

Dahomey

Kingdom developed among Fon or Aja peoples in 17th century; center at Abomey 70 miles from coast; under King Agaja expanded to control coastline and port of Whydah by 1727; accepted Western firearms and goods in return for African slaves.

Asantehene

Title taken by ruler of Asante Empire; supreme civil and religious leader; authority symbolized by golden stool.

Luo, Fulani

Nilotic people who migrated from the Upper Nile Valley; established dynasty among existing bantu population in lake region of central eastern Africa;
pastoral people of western Sudan; adopted purifying variant of Islam; Under usuman Dan Fodio in 1804, they launched a revolt against the Hausa Kingdoms

Usuman Dan Fodio

Studious and charismatic Muslim Fulani scholar, who began to preach his reformist ideology in the Hausa kingdoms.

Khoikhoi

Non-Bantu hunting people who occupied the southern end of Africa; lived bu hunting and sheep herding.

Boer

Dutch settlers in Cape Colony.

Great Trek

Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal.

Mfecane

Wars of 19th century in southern Africa; created by Zulu expansion under Shaka; revolutionized political organization of southern Africa.

Middle Passage

Slave voyage from Africa to the Americas (16th-18th centuries); generally a traumatic experience for black slaves, although it failed to strip Africans of their culture.

Saltwater slaves

Slaves transported from Africa; almost invariably black.

Creole

Whites born in the New World; dominated local Latin American economies; ranked just beneath peninsulares

Obeah

African religious ideas and practices in the English and French Caribbean islands.

Palmares

Kingdom of runaway slaves with a population of 8,000 to 10,000 people; located in Brazil during the 17th century; leadership was Angolan

William Wilberforce

British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807.

Ottoman Turks

Turkic people who advanced from strongholds in Asia Minor during the 1350's. Established an Empire there that eventually extended throughout the entire Middle East; responsible for the conquest of Constantinople and end of the Byzantine Empire in 1453; succeded Seljuk Turks following the retreat of the Mongols.

Mehmed II

Ottoman sultan called the "Conqueror"; responsible for conquest of Constantinople in 1453; destroyed what remained of Byzantine Empire.

Janissaries

Ottoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies; forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered areas of Balkans, legally slaves; translated military service into political influence, particularly after 15th century.

Viziers

Ottoman equivalent of the Abbasid wazir; head of the Ottoman bereaucracy; after 15th century, they were often more powerful than the sultan.

Chaldiran

site of battle between Safavids and Ottomans in 1514; Safavids severely defeated by Ottomans; checked western advance of Safavid Empire.

Abbas the Great

Safavid ruler from 1587 to 1629; extended Safavid domain to greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms within Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology.

Mullahs

Local mosque officials and prayer leaders within the Safavid Empire; agents of Safavid religious campaign to convert all of population to Shi'ism

Imams

According to Shi'ism, rulers who could trace descent from Ali.

Isfahan

Safavid capital under Abbas the Great; planned city laid out according to the shah's plan; example of Safavid architecture.

Babur

Founder of Mughal dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warriors; first led invasion of India in 1526; died in 1530.

Humayan

Son and successor of Babur; expelled from India in 1540, but restored Mughal rule by 1556; died shortly thereafter.

Akbar

Son and successor of Humayan; oversaw building of military and administrative systems that became typical of Mughal rule in India; pursued policy of cooperation with Hindu princes; attempted to create new religion to bind Muslim and Hindu populations of India.

Din-i-llahi

Religion initiated by Akbar in Mughal Empire; blended the many faiths of the subcontinent; meant to reconcile Muslims and Hindus, but failed.

Nur Jahan

Wife of Jahangir; amassed power in court and created faction of male relatives who dominated Mughal Empire during later years of Jahangir's reign

Taj Mahal

Most famous architectural achievement of Mughal India ; originally built a mausoleum for the wife of Shah Jahan, Mumtaz Mahal

Aurangzeb

Son and successor of Shah Jahan; pushed extent of Mughal control in India; reversed previous policies to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare depleted the empire's resources; died in 1707.

Sikhs

Sect in northwest India; early leaders tried to bridge gap between Hindus and Muslims, but Mughal persecution led to anti-Muslim feelings.

Goa

Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located on the Western Indian Coast; site for forcible entry into the Asian sea trade network.

Dutch Trading Empire

Based on control of fortified towns and factories, warships on patrol, and monopoly control of limited number of products-- particularly spices.

Francis Xavier

Spanish Jesuit missionary; worked in India in 1540s among the outcaste and lower caste groups; made little headway among elites.

Honqwu

First Ming Emperor in 1368; originally of peasant lineage; original name Zhu Yuanzhang; drove out Mongol influence; restored position of scholar gentry.

Macao

One of two ports in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty.

Canton

One of the two port cites where Europeans were permitted to trade with China during the Ming Dynasty

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

General under Nobanga; suceeded as leading military power in Japan; continued efforts to break power of daimyos; constucted a series of military alliances that made him the military master of Japan in 1590; died in 1598.

Tokugawa Ieyasu

Vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established Tokugawa Shogunate; established political unity in Japan.

Edo

Tokugawa capital city; modern-day Tokyo; center of the Tokugawa shogunate.

School of National Learning

New Ideology that laid emphasis on Japan's unique historical experience and the revival of indigenous culture at the expense of Chinese imports such as Confuciansim; typical of Japan in the 18th century.

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