Lecture 3: Parietal, occipital, Temporal lobes, Ventricular system, Brainstem, Pons & Diencephalon
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Meganmichelle2 Plus on February 1, 2011
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|Parietal lobe||positioned posterior to frontal lobe and superior to the occipital.|
|Central sulcus||On the parietal lobe: separates the parietal lobe from the frontal.|
|lateral sulcus||On the parietal lobe: separates the frontal lobe from the temporal lobe anteriorly and separates the temporal lobe from the parietal lobe posteriorly|
|somatosensory cortex|| The functional descritpional name|
On the parietal lobe: somesthetic processing. Located on the gyrus behind the central sulcus is the post central gyrus.
|postcentral gyrus|| On the parietal lobe: A gyrus called the primary somatosensory cortex. positioned posterior to the central sulcus.|
within this there is a sensory homonculus: touch, pain, sharpness, temperature.
|Preoccipital notch||On the parietal lobe: a notch on the inferior portion of the parietal lobe which separates the parietal lobe from the occipital lobe.|
|intra parietal sulcus|| On the parietal lobe: (horizontal) a sulcus that separates the parietal lobe into 2 smaller lobules:|
| Supramarginal gyrus,|
| These gyri continue to certain brain functions / damage to these gyri can result in:|
|Temporal lobe|| Lobe of the brain: inferior frontal lobe & anterior to the occipital lobe.|
Has the primary auditory cortex, wernicke's, associated with hearing-also limbic system.
|Temporal lobe||Lobe of the brain: ____________ houses wernicke's area Brodmanns 22. Language motor cortex. Positioned at the posterior portion of superior temporal gyrus. On the dominate hemisphere.|
|transverse gyri of heschl|| On the Temporal lobe: Deep within the lateral sulcus you can see a few of these.|
A part of the superior temporal gyrus but you cant see them
Brodmanns 41+42(primary auditory cortex)
|primary auditory cortex||On the Temporal lobe: Brodmanns 41+42|
|Tonotopic Organization||On the Temporal lobe: of the sounds on our auditory cortex (hearing homunculus)|
|Planun temporale||On the Temporal lobe: a smooth area at the posterior aspect of superior temporal gyrus (right before wernickes)|
|Parahippocampal gyrus|| On the Temporal lobe: positioned medial to the Inferior temporal gyrus|
a part of the limbic system
|Uncus|| On the Temporal lobe: positioned at the medial aspect of the temporal lobe near the Hypothalamus|
________ is considered to be a part of the limbic system
|occipital lobe|| Lobe of the brain that is the most posterior lobe of the brain |
primarily associated with vision (Brodmann's 17)
mainly visual at the lateral medial aspect of the brain
|Calcarine fissure|| On the occipital lobe: a sulcus that separates the primary visual cortex into superior & inferior operculum. (upper and lower operculum |
Positioned at the medial aspect of the occipital lobe.
|Primary visual cortex||On occipital lobe: surrounds the calcarine fissure. Referred to as Brodmann's area 17|
|Lingual Gyrus||On the occipital lobe: Anatomical name. Positioned inferior to or bellow the Calcarine fissure.|
|Insula|| There is an ____________ lobe on each side. Made up of parallel Gyri.|
The ______ lobe is lateral to the corpus callosum.
|Circular sulcus||a sulcus that borders the insula lobe.|
|insula lobe|| *associated with the limbic system|
*autonomic info processing(fight & flight)
*viscera functions-body functions
*association with olfactory system.
|Corpus callosum||toward the center of the brain. The largest connection between the right and left hemispheres. |
Only visible at mid-sagittal view
The insula lobe is lateral to the corpus callosum.
Referred to as inter hemispheric commissural fiber.
Corpus callosum is Myelinated (white matter)
It inter connects different cortical areas.
|Rostrum||A portion of the corpus callosum. The most anterior portion.|
|Genu||A portion of the corpus callosum. The knee of the C C|
|Body||A portion of the corpus callosum. The middle of the C C|
|Splenium||A portion of the corpus callosum. The posterior portion of the C C.|
|Septal region||Not a part of the C C but associated with it. The cortical area which lies below the rostrum.|
|Cingulate Gyrus||Superior to the corpus Callosum.|
|Ventricular System||The system that helps in the generation and circulation of the CSF produced by an area within the lateral ventricles referred to as the Choroid Plexus.|
|Choroid Plexus||area within the lateral ventricles that produces CSF|
|4||How many ventricles are there?|
|3||Each ventricle has ______ extensions|
|Extensions of a ventricle|| Anterior Extension|
|Lateral ventricles||_________________ are interconnected by a foramen (Foramen of Monro)|
|Foramen of Monro||connects the lateral ventricles into the 3rd ventricle|
|3rd ventricle|| This ventricle is located between the 2 thalami (pleural for thalamus)|
*becomes so thin at one point so that Right and left thalamus are some what connected. The Inter thalamic adhesion
|Interthalamic adhesion||where the thalamus becomes so thin at one point that right and left thalamus are some what connected.|
|Ventricle||a hollow part or cavity in an organ, each of the four connected fluid-filled cavities in the center of the brain.|
|4th ventricle||has a triangular floor is at the level of Pons and medulla of brainstem. The floor of this ventricle has important brain nuclei.|
|Cerebral aqueduct||connects the 3rd ventricle to the 4th ventricle.|
|Foramen of Luschka||(L) small openings on the sides of the 4th ventricle-these openings are connected to the sub-arachnoid space of Meninges. (canals or openings that bring or connect the 4th ventricle to the Sub arachnoid space)|
|Foramen of Magendi||(M) small opening at the tip of the 4th ventricle-this opening is connected to the sub-arachnoid space of Meninges. (canals or openings that bring or connect the 4th ventricle to the Sub arachnoid space)|
|4th ventricle||The brain stem is basically surrounding the _______________ ________________|
|Central canal||connected to the 4th ventricle to get CSF to the spinal cord.|
|Brainstem|| Made up of 3 portions|
Medulla oblongata- spinal cord
Midbrain-has major nuclei
|Medulla oblongata|| *The most inferior part of the brainstem. Connects to the spinal cord, name changed to this at foramen Magnum. |
*all nerves pass through this.
*close to the cerebellum
* extensions/emerging fibers from here are the cranial nerves.
*looks like a cone
|Medulla oblongata|| At the dorsal aspect of the _________ ____________ there are 2 columns that carry sensory information. (sensory pathway) |
*Fasciculus gracilis -more medial
*Fasciculus cuneatus - more lateral
Fine descrimnatory (hot, cold, sharp)
|Dorsal||Sensor information is on what aspect of medulla?|
|Anterior||Motor fibers run on what aspect of medulla?|
|Fasciculus gracilis||found within the medulla- more medial- relays general sensory info from the lower half of the body to the nucleus gracilis.|
|Fasciculus cuneatus||found within the medulla- relays general sensory info from the upper half of the body to the nucleus cuneatus.|
|Obex||found within the medulla -Anatomical landmark for the inferior tip of the 4th ventricle.|
|Pyramid|| found within the medulla - anterior/ventral aspect of the medulla, a longitudinal swelling which contains descending motor fibers.|
*made of pyramidal tracts.
|Cortical spinal tract|| found within the medulla *a pyramidal tract that travels from cortex to spinal cord. Carries motor information, brings motor commands from the cortex to a variety of structures in the body via the spinal cord.|
A majority of the info is transmitted into the skeletory muscles (voluntary muscles)
|10||______ of 12 cranial nerves arise from the brainstem. Nerve rootlets|
|Pyramidal decussation||found within the medulla (crossover) At the pyramid of medulla there is a place called ___________ __________________ where the fibers from left pyramidal tract and right pyramidal tract cross over.|
|Inferior olivary nucleus|| found within the medulla - sends fibers to the cerebellum via inferior cerebellar peduncle.|
***The connection between the inferior olivary nucleus and cerebellum is important for motor activity.
|inferior cerebellar peduncle|| found within the medulla The Inferior olivary nucleus sends fibers to the cerebellum through this.|
***The connection between the inferior olivary nucleus and cerebellum is important for motor activity.
|inferior olivary nucleus||The connection between the _________ ________ _________ and cerebellum is important for motor activity.|
|nerves||When the cranial nerves come out from medulla they are fibers but when they leave CNS then the are called ________. They puncture the meninges.|
|Cerebellaopontine angle||Anatomical landmark. The place where pons and medulla and cerebellum come together. This is where 2 important cranial nerves arise. 7 (facial) & 8 ( acoustic nerves)|
|Acoustic tubercle||a swelling associated with the ascending auditory pathway at the level of medulla.|
|respiratory center||a function center in medulla which controls the rythm and rate of breathing.|
|Vasomotor center||a function center in medulla which controls and monitors the diameter of vessels.|
|Cardiac center||a function center in medulla which controls the heartbeat.|
|Pons|| the intermediate portion of the brainstem in between midbrain and medulla. |
**has a convex ventral aspect like a belly.
Has 3 peduncles
|Middle cerebellar peduncle||This is also called the brachium pontis, which connects the pons (brainstem) to the cerebellum. Contains all the fibers from the pons to the cerebellum|
|brachium pontis||This is also called the Middle cerebellar peduncle, which connects the pons (brainstem) to the cerebellum. Contains all the fibers from the pons to the cerebellum|
|Inferior cerebellar peduncle||This is also called the restiform body. It connects the medulla (brainstem) to the cerebellum. Contains most afferent inputs to the cerebellum.|
|restiform body||This is also called the Inferior cerebellar peduncle. It connects the medulla (brainstem) to the cerebellum. Contains most afferent inputs to the cerebellum.|
|Superior cerebellar peduncle||This is also called the brachium conjunctivum, which connects the cerebellum to the midbrain (brainstem). It contains most of the output of the cerebellum from deep cerebellar nuclei.|
|brachium conjunctivum||This is also called the Superior cerebellar peduncle, which connects the cerebellum to the midbrain (brainstem). It contains most of the output of the cerebellum from deep cerebellar nuclei.|
|3 & 5||Cranial _____ & _______ emerge from the dorsal aspect of pons|
|pontine nuclei|| Within the pons there are multiple nuclei called _________________.|
They help in the motor iniation and motor planning.
They have connections to vistibular and cerebellar areas
|Midbrain||Superior to pons.|
|Cerebral peduncle|| Aka: midbrain|
Includes the R & L crus cerebri & the interpeduncular fossa
(do not confuse with cerebellar peduncle)
|crus cerebri||Located at the anterior and lateral aspect of the midbrain.|
|interpeduncular fossa||the gap between right and left cruse cerebri. The 3rd cranial nerve: Occula motor nerve emerges from the inter-peduncular area.|
|Corpora quadrigemina||Association with 4 bodies. An accumulation of 4 nuclei at the DORSAL aspect of the midbrain (cant see it at ventral) Superior colliculi & Inferior colliculi (2 of each)|
|Inferior colliculi||auditory relay nuclei-transmit auditory onfo from midbrain to thalamus. The largest nucleus of the auditory system especially at the level of midbrain.|
|Superior colliculi||nuclei that participate in the visual reflexes and control eye movement.|
|Diencephalon|| "between brains" Located between brainstem and cerebral hemispheres. The place where the 2nd cranial nerve emerge (optic nerve)|
*contains many nuclei
The largest nucleus is the Thalamus
|Thalamus||An oval nuclear mass. Located within the diencephalon. The largest nucleus. Called the sensory gateway of the brain.|
|Hypothalamus||Located inferior to the thalamus within the diencephalon. Contains a variety of nuclei that regulate Endocrine functions that regulate: body heat, water intake, and hormone production.|
|Medial geniculate body||relay nucleus for auditory stimuli or info to cortex|
|Lateral geniculate body||Relays visual stimuli or visual info to cortex.|
|Sub Thalamus||more inside of diencephalon (internal part)|
|Epithalamus|| another portion of diencephalon has several portions|
|inter hemispheric commissural fiber||What is another name for corpus callosum?|
|corpus callosum||What part of the brain inter connects different cortical areas?|