The categories of carbohydrates are:
monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide
Carbohydrates are important for producing....
A lipid is composed of...
a glycerol and three fatty acids (triglyceride)
Lipids are important for...
energy, insulation, and protection
Proteins are composed of...
Functions of proteins include...
contractile, structural, and enzymes
What structures compose the digestive tract?
oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anal cavity, anus
Which structures are accessory organs?
liver, salivary glands, pancreas, and gallbladder
The functions of the digestive system include:
c. mechanical digestion
d. chemical digestion
The lining of the digestive system provide protection of...
enzymes and acids, bacteria, and mechanical stress
The ______ peritoneum (attached to the surface of the organs) and ________ peritoneum (contacting the body cavity) surround the digestive system.
The mesenteries provide...
access for vessels/lymph and help stabilize.
What is the omentum?
cargo net like connective tissue lined with fat that stabilizes the internal organs.
The blood supply to the digestive tract includes...
arteries, and the hepatic portal system that drains nutrient rich blood from the digestive organs.
Describe the 4 layers fo the digestive tract. (histology)
3. muscularis externa
4. serous membrane
Peristalsis is _________ while segmentation is ________.
propulsion (wavelike motions); random churning
The digestive system is controlled by:
b. chemo receptors
c. hormonal mechanisms
The functions of the oral cavity include:
c. sensory function
Describe the anatomy of the oral cavity.
tongue, lingual frenulum, teeth, hard palate, rugae, soft palate, and the uvula
The functions of the tongue include:
a. mash food- pili form papilla
c. secretion of mucus and enzymes
The paired salivary glands and the secretions of each are:
a. parotid; salivary amylase
b. sublingual; mucus
c. submandibular; buffers, enzymes, and amalases
In dental succession we have_______ primary teeth and _________ secondary teeth.
The pharynx is composed of:
nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
What is the muscular tube that delivers food and fluids to the stomach?
The digestive process includes:
b. mechanical digestion
c. chemical digestion
The stomach functions are:
b. mechanical breakdown
c. chemical breakdown
d. production of intrinsic factor
Four regions of the stomach include:
cardiac region, fundus, the body, and the pyloric region
The __________sphincter of the stomach is located __________________ and the ___________sphincter or valve is located ______________________.
cardiac, cardiac region; pyloric, pyloric region
The valves of the stomach function to...
close off the stomach for digestion.
What are rugae?
ridges in stomach that aid in mechanical digestion
In the gastric glands of the stomach we find__________cells that produce HCl and ______________cells that produce pepsinogen.
Pyloric glands produce:
mucus/gastrin that is protective.
When the stomach is stretched_____________ is released.
_____________ stimulates the release of pepsinogen.
Pepsinogen + HCl produces
Chyme is ____________________and it has an ________________pH.
acidified protein; acidic
Trace the pathway for digestion from the mouth to the anus.
Oral cavity-pharynx-esophagus-stomach-small intestines-large intestines-anal canal-anus
Describe the physiological events of digestion and absorption
The portions of the small intestine are the...
duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
What is the major organ of digestion?
The small intestine completes digestion of what and begins digestion of what?
completes: carbohydrate and protein digestion
begins: lipid digestion
Describe the villi and microvilli of the small intestines
finger like projections that increase surface area for absorption
What are absorbed in the capillary of the villi of the small intestine?
monosaccharides and amino acids
What are absorbed in the lacteal of the villi of the small intestine?
Identify the secretions released from the small intestine and their target at each step of digestion.
mucus is ejected on the surface of the small intestines for protection
The function of the hepatic portal system is to:
transport nutrients from villi to liver.
What is the largest gland in the body?
What filter and process nutrient rich blood in the liver?
Liver cells are known as what?
What cells are macrophages in the liver?
Metabolic regulation in the liver includes:
a. carbohydrate metabolism
b. lipid metabolism
c. amino acid metabolism
d. remove waste products
e. lipid soluable vitamin storage A, D, E, K and B(12)
f. mineral storage (iron)
g. drug inactivation
glycogen is broken down into glucose
glucose being stored as glycogen.
glucose made from amino acids.
The liver regulates the blood by removal of
hormones, excess antibodies, and toxins and by synthesizing and secretions of proteins and bile.
What is the major function of the gallbladder?
What hormone influences the contraction of the gallbladder?
In the pancreas, the _________cells are exocrine and secrete __________________; the ___________________cells are endocrine and secrete ____________________.
acini, digestive enzymes; pancreatic Islets, insulin & glucagon
What raises blood sugar levels?
What lowers blood sugar levels?
Pancreatic juice is a watery solution alkaline in pH and is composed of buffers and enzymes such as...
amylase, sucrase, maltase, lactase, lipases, nucleases, proteases, and trypsin.
The intestinal hormone _____________________targets the stomach, ____________________targets the gallbladder, and _________________targets the pancreas.
gastric inhibitory peptide; cholecystokynin; secreten
Describe the duct system at the liver, gall bladder and pancreas.
hepatic portal system-small intestines to liver
The functions of the large intestines include:
a. water absorption
b. goblet cells produce mucus
c. compact waste products into feces/storage
d. absorb vitamins
Describe the regions of the large intestines.
cecum, appendix, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anal canal, anus, haustra, Right and Left colic flexures
What purpose do bacteria in the large intestine serve?
production of vitamins and break down undigested food
Describe the rectum and anus.
3 valves in rectum
2 sphincters- internal and external
Describe the defecation reflex.
a. wall stretch
b. stretch receptors pick up on stretch
c. receptors send message to spinal cord
d. message is looped through and sent t smooth muscle
e. smooth muscle relaxes