Nutrition Chapter 4

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simple carbohydrates

MONOSACCHARIDES AND DISACCHARIDES (the sugars) are sometimes called

complex carbohydrates

POLYSACCHARIDES (starches and fibers) are sometimes called

hexoses (sugars with six atoms of carbon)

Most of the monosaccharides important in nutrition are

Carbohydrates

These compounds are composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen arranged as monosaccharides or multiples of monosaccharides. Most, but not all of these have a ratio of one carbon molecule to one water molecule.

Glucose

This provides nearly all the energy the human brain uses daily.

Monosaccharides are:

single sugars and the most important in nutrition.

Disaccharides are:

sugars composed of pairs of monosaccharides.

Polysaccharides are:

large molecules composed of chains of monosaccharides.

sugars

Glucose, fructose and galactose are the 3 of the 6 most important________in nutrition and are monosaccharides.

Maltose, sucrose and lactose

These are 3 of the 6 most important sugars in nutrition and are disaccharides.

Glucose

Commonly known as blood sugar and serves as an essential energy source for all the body's activities.

Fructose

The sweetest of the sugars and is found in fruit, honey, and saps.

Galactose

This monosaccharide occurs naturally as a single sugar in only a few foods.

Condensation

A chemical reaction in which water is released as two reactants combine to form one larger product.

Hydrolysis

This reaction splits a molecule into two, with H added to one and OH to the other.

monosaccharides

The three ____________important in nutrition all have the same number and kinds of atoms, but in different arrangements.

disaccharides

The ______________ are pairs of the three monosaccharides linked together.

maltose

The disaccharide __________, consists of two glucose units and is produced whenever starch breaks down.

sucrose

Fructose and glucose together form __________. Depending on extent to which it is refined, this product becomes brown, white, and powdered sugars found at grocery stores.

lactose

The combination of galactose and glucose makes the disaccharide ____________, the principal carbohydrate of milk.

Carbohydrates

These are made of carbon (C), oxygen (O), and hydrogen (H).

carbon

The atom ________ can form 4 chemical bonds.

oxygen

The atom ________ can form 2 chemical bonds.

hydrogen

The atom ________ can form 1 chemical bond.

Glucose, fructose and galactose (monosaccharides) and maltose, sucrose, and lactose (disaccharides),

The six sugars important to nutrition are:

plants

Sugars are derived primarily from _______.

milk and milk products

The sugars, lactose and its component galactose come from:

condensation

Two monosaccharides can be linked together by a __________ reaction to form a disaccharide and water.

hydrolysis

A disaccharide can be broken into its two monosaccharides by a ____________ reaction using water.

Polysaccharides

These contain many glucose units and, in some cases, a few other monosaccharides strung together.

glycogen, starches, and fibers

Three types of polysaccharides important in nutrition are:

Glycogen

A storage form of energy in the body

Starch

A storage form of energy in plants

Fibers

These provide structure in stems, trunks, roots, leaves and skins of plants.

glycogen and starch

Both ________ and _________ are built of glucose units.

Fibers

These are composed of a variety of monosaccharides and other carbohydrate derivatives.

Glycogen

This carbohydrate is found to only a limited extent in meats and not at all in plants. Food is not a significant source of this carbohydrate.

Glycogen

This carbohydrate performs an important role in the body; it stores glucose for future use.

liver and muscles

Glycogen is an animal polysaccharide composed of glucose; manufactured in the __________ and __________ as a storage form of glucose.

starches

Plant cells store glucose as __________.

Starch

These molecules are packed side by side in grains such as wheat or rice, in root crops an tubers such as yams and potatoes, and in legumes such as peas and beans.

plants

All starchy foods come from _________.

Grains

These are the richest food source of starch, providing much of the food energy for people all over the world.

Dietary fibers

These are the structural parts of plants and thus are found in all plant-derived foods - vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes.

broken down

Dietary fibers differ from starches in that the bonds between their monosaccharides cannot be ________ _____ by digestive enzymes in the body.

energy

Because dietary fibers pass through the body, they contribute no monosaccharides, and therefore little or no _________.

glucose, fructose and galactose

The 3 monosaccharides are ____________, ____________, and _________________.

maltose, sucrose and lactose

The 3 disaccharides are _____________, _______________, and ______________.

Maltose

Glucose + Glucose =

Sucrose

Glucose + Fructose =

Lactose

Glucose + Galactose =

glycogen, starches and fibers

The 3 polysaccharides are __________, _______________, and ____________.

starches

Amylose and amylopectin are _____________.

Fibers

___________ can be soluble and insoluble.

carbohydrate

Glycogen is a polysaccharide, but not a dietary source of ________________.

dextrins

The short chains of glucose units that result from the breakdown of starch are known as ____________.

saliva

In the mouth, thoroughly chewing high-fiber foods slows eating and stimulates the flow of ___________.

amylase

The salivary enzyme is ____________.

small intestine

Because food is in the mouth for a short time, very little carbohydrate digestion takes place there; it begins again in the ________ ___________.

bolus

A _______ is a portion of food swallowed at one time.

Satiety

_________ is the feeling of fullness and satisfaction that occurs after a meal and inhibits eating until the next meal. This determines how much time passes between meals.

Amylase

____________ is an enzyme that hydrolyzes amylose.

carbohydrase

Amylase is a _____________, an enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates.

small intestine

The ________ ___________ performs most of the work of carbohydrate digestion.

maltase

The enzyme that hydrolyzes maltose is _________.

sucrase

The enzyme that hydrolyzes sucrose is _________.

lactase

The enzyme that hydrolyzes lactose is _________.

pancreatic amylase

A major carbohydrate-digesting enzyme, _________ ________ is released through the pancreatic duct and into the small intestine.

maltase, sucrase and lactase.

The specific enzymes that break down specific disaccharides are _________, __________ and ___________.

available carbohydrates

Starches and sugars are called ___________ ____________ because human digestive enzymes break them down for the body's use.

unavailable carbohydrates

Fibers are called ____________ _____________ because human digestive enzymes cannot break their bonds.

sugars and starches

Within one to four hours after a meal, all the _______ and _______ have been digested.

fibers

Only _______ remain in the digestive tract and this delays absorption of other nutrients and also delays gastric emptying.

large intestine

Most fiber passes intact through the digestive tract to the _______ ___________. It is here that bacterial enzymes digest fiber.

Fiber

________ holds water; regulates bowel activity; and binds substances such as bile, cholesterol, and some minerals, carrying them out of the body.

mouth

Glucose is unique in that it can be absorbed to some extent through the lining of the _______, but for the most part, nutrient absorption takes place in the small intestine.

liver

As blood from the small intestine circulates through the ______, cells there take up fructose and galactose and convert them to other compounds, most often to glucose.

maltose

In the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, the body breaks down starches into the disaccharide _________.

liver

When monosaccharides arrive at the ________, they are converted mostly to glucose to provide energy for the cells' work.

fibers

The ________ help to regulate the passage of food through the GI system and slow absorption of glucose, but they contribute little, if any, energy.

glucose

Everything comes into the blood looking like _________.

birth

Lactase activity is highest immediately after ______.

lactose

Only about 30% of people in the world retain enough lactase to digest and absorb ________ efficiently throughout adult life.

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