The presence of two or more meters at the same time.
Two or more tonal centers sounding at the same time.
Melodic or harmonic movement by half steps.
A practice sometimes used in twentieth-century music in which tacks, chewing gum, paper, and other objects are placed in the mechanism of the piano so that it sounds different timbres.
A type of twentieth-century music that contains folklike qualities.
Twentieth-century music that is neither experimental nor committed to a particular compositional viewpoint.
A song sung without words, usually sung on a single vowel sound.
An early twentieth-century style that emphasized subjective and often disturbing emotions.
A vocal style that is a combination of speaking and singing.
Music that seeks to contain rhythmic power and blatant expression.
Two keys (tonal centers) occurring simultaneously.
"New classicism"—works that attempt to emulate the techniques and flavor of those created in the Classical period.
Tone Row Music
(twelve-tone or dodecaphonic music) A composition based on a row of pitches that uses each of the twelve tones in an octave.
Music that is not in any key or tonality.
The reverse direction of a melody of tone row, in which the first note becomes the last, and so on
(1) Turning a melody upside down so that an ascending interval descends, and vice versa. (2) Rearranging the notes in a chord so that its basic note is no longer the lowest one.
The upside-down and backward version of the tone row.
Using a note with the same letter name as a previous note but in another octave.
German for "Manufactured tone color melody"; melodies made up of different timbres.
The application of the principles of tone row music to elements such as dynamic levels and articulations.
Music in which some or all events are the product of chance.
Natural sounds that are recorded and then modified and organized by a composer into a musical composition.
An interval of less than a half step.
The practice of combining what the composer believes to be the best features of several different styles.