Activity #1 Key Concepts
1. Solving Problems
2. Scientific Method
Solving problems becomes easier when you have a partner
There is more than one way to solve a problem
State the problem or question
Background research about the problem
Propose the explanation, also known as the hypothesis
Collect evidence (conduct an experiment)
Draw conclusions and, if necessary, revise and repeat the experiment
Activity #2 Key Concepts Evidence and Inference Ethics
Evidence: Relevent facts that support or counter a scientific theory or hypothesis
Ethics: Rule that govern conducts of sciene... should something be done? Is it the right thing to do?
Tradeoffs: Sacrifices that are made in return for gaining another quality
Activity #3 Key Concepts
Safety and Effectiveness
Control- are samples that are included in an experiment that yield an expected result
Placebo- a pill in a drug clinical study that does not contain active medicine
A general rule coming out on the market is that if 20 percent or less show side effects, it is okay on the market.
If the drug is 2x effective, than ineffective, it is okay.
Activity #4 Key Concepts Placebo Effect
FDA sees if medicines are safe and effective. Tests on animals before they have a clinical trial on humans.
Volunteers can not be allergic to drugs being tested, because could cause bad side effects
Can't be taking any other medications to be participating in a clinical trial
Had to sign a informed consent form(informed about risks and side effects).
2 groups- one receives active, one receives inactives
Placebo Effect- people have a better attitude because of the idea of getting a pill and going to the doctor (Might be difficult to see if the drug is effective or not.)
Activity #5 Key Concepts
Sensitivity- the ability to discriminate 2 points
Variable- anything that can influence the outcome.
More accurate if the number of variables are reduced
Activity #6 Key Concepts
Central Nervous system- higher order thinking and integrating signals
Peripheral nervous system- sensory signals... from environment to brain...
afferent nerve pathways
efferent nerve pathways
Nerves detect heat, pressure, sounds, smell, light, very sensitive
Lots of receptors on our fingertips to detect touch
Nerves in your body from head to toe.
Central nervous system includes the spinal cord and your brain
somatic and autonomic
Autonomic movement is sympathetic and parasympathetic
Photo receptors are in the back and the optic nerves
More nerves you have, more sensitive you are
Activity #7 Key Concepts
Elements of good experiment
All variables, except the one being tested, are the same
Procedures are designed clearly and completely
A control is used for comparison
A large sample size provides more data. This helps insure that the data is reliable
Multiple trials are used for the same reason as a large sample size
Well designed experiments can be reproduced by other investigators to give similar results.
Activity #8 Key Concepts
Quantitative: numbers and units (EXACT NUMBERS)
Both ways of collecting data
Activity #9 Key Concepts
Range, Mean, Mode, Median
Math Range:ex. 9-10 r=1
Science Range:ex 9-10 r=9-10
Activity #11 Key Concepts
Trade-offs involved w/ taking medication
drug to drug interactions
Liver- detoxifying blood
Herbal remedy and other medicines
Side effects: unintended consequences of taking medications
Reyes Syndrome: Risks of taking aspirin under 19 and causes brain damage
Liver detoxifies blood
Ineffective, effective, toxic, death
Herbal Remedy - Not FDA Regulated
Can't predict the outcome of drugs
Activity #12 Key Concepts
Essentials for body
Body needs oxygen and nutrients(H2O, minerals, vitamins, proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.
Organ System- when two or more organs work together to complete a function.
Respitory System: Helps initiate the process of collecting oxygen. Mouth/nose, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli.
Digestive System: Collects nutrients from food and breaks it down. Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine.
Circulatory System: includes vasculature. heart, arteries, veins, capillaries. helps make sure each cell gets its nutrients
gas- lungs-gets rid of carbon dioxide
Musculo System: skeletal- supports body and controls movements
Nervous System-allows us to be succesful with environment
Integumentary System: skin- keeps out 99% of bad stuff, protection
Immune System- WBC- White Blood Cells
Reproduction System: propagate, have kids