BIO269 Lab - Exam 1 Information

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psychophysiology

the study of physiological responses to behavioral stimuli

physiological parameters commonly measured by psychophysiologists, and why are they of interest?

electrodermal activity, heart rate, skin temperature, respiration rate all respond to signals from the autonomic nervous system

GSR: definition

galvanic skin response, another name for electrodermal activity, a physiological parameter commonly measured by psychophysiologists using the unit, microsiemens (uS)

GSR: the process

eccrine sweat glands on palms of hands and bottom of feet, innervated by sympathetic ANS, act as variable resistors - as they fill with fluid, skin resistance to an electrical current decreases; meanwhile, sympa ANS increases sweat production, which triggers an increase in skin conductance, allowing electricity to pass freely through the structure even more; after the stress is removed, GSR decreases again (slowly)

how is skin temperature looked at by psychophysiologists?

circulation in the microvasculature is controlled by the ANS and is able to regulate temperature and O2 supply to tissues because of its ability to be varied; a change in skin temperature, for example, can occur due to a change in emotions (stress responses activate the sympa ANS reduce peripheral circulation, lowering the temperature, while a strong signal from the para ANS causes increased peripheral circulation locally

how is pulse rate looked at by psychophysiologists?

it increases as a result of increased norepinephrine due to upregulation of the sympa ANS, which occurs in situations such as high stress scenarios

what did the psychophysiology I lab examine?

the ANS response to various stimuli by measuring a change in skin conductance, skin temperature, and peripheral pulse rate

psychophysiology: what happened to skin conductance in response to being startled, and what does this suggest is occurring in the skin/

increased, likely because sweat production increased (a side effect of the sympa ns), and since more sweat was being secreted there was more water, and water is a good conductor of electricity, so it went up

psychophysiology: was there a noticeable change in the volunteer's skin temperature during milk stress?

not really (hundredths of a degree)

psychophysiology: what happened to skin temperature during stress and what branch of the autonomic nervous system do your data suggest was active during it?

it went down, signifying that the sympathetic nervous system was in place because blood was being conserved in the body's corp (the heart) rather than extremities

psychophysiology: what happened to pulse rate during stress, and why physiologically did this occur?

increased because the heart was pumping at a more rapid rate (up regulation) to circulate oxygen and other nutrients more quickly

psychophysiology: why might some countries not accept polygraph tests as evidence in a court of law?

even mild stress, such as being questioned, can cause an up regulation in the sympathetic nervous system, which is what the polygraph is testing

hematology: blood provides a medium for ____

homeostasis in the cells' environment

hematology: jobs of blood

bathes cells within the human body, transports O2 and nutrients to body cells, removes CO2 and waste products from cells, links various organ systems together through the action of hormones, provides buffers for acid-base balance, destroys foreign organisms, distributes and conserves body heat

hematology: hemostasis

the prevention of blood loss; a clotting/coagulation system

hematology: the average amount of blood in human body, male vs. female

5-6L, 4-5L

hematology: blood composition & percentages

liquid plasma (54%), formed elements - red blood cells (45%), white blood cells and platelets (1%)

hematology: the protein hemoglobin

a protein that enables RBC's to carry O2 to body cells and CO2 away from cells

hematology: blood typing

a system of classification based on the presence of specific glycoproteins on the outer surface of the RBC plasma membrane (agglutinogens), genetically determined

hematology: white blood cells are divided into ______

granulocytes and agranulocytes

hematology: granulocytes include

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

hematology: agranulocytes include

lymphocytes and monocytes

hematology: neutrophils (identifying features)

multilobed nucleus, inconspicuous granules

hematology: eosinophils (identifying features)

bilobed nucleus, red granules

hematology: basophils (identifying features)

lobed nucleus with very large, dark granules

hematology: lymphocytes (identifying features)

spherical, large nucleus with pale blue cytoplasm

hematology: monocytes (identifying features)

kidney shaped nucleus, gray-blue cytoplasm

hematology: antigens present on RBC membranes of each type

A (A), B (B), A & B (AB), neither (O)

hematology: antibodies present in plasma of each type

B (A), A (B), none (AB), both A & B (O)

hematology: serial dilution

when you start with a known concentration, take a percentage of it and add to water to dilute, lightening the solution color and thus the concentration; a spectrophotometer measures the color in absorbance output, which decreases with the concentration; by plotting a standard curve of absorbance (y) vs. concentration (x), you can find the unkown's absorbance and then put it on the plot to find the concentration

hematology: multiplication factor for RBC

10,000

hematology: average number of RBCs, males vs. females

5.4 +/- .8million/mm^3 vs. 4.8 +/- .6million/mm^3

hematology: MCHC, what is it and what is the equation

mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (in RBC); normal value is 32-36%; useful for evaluating the clinical response of an anemic patient; elevated levels associated with spherocytosis and diminished can be iron deficiency, chronic blood loss or thalassemia; equation = (Hb in g/dL blood / hemtocrit in %) x 100

hematology: MCV, what is it and what is the equation

mean corpuscular volume, a measure of the average red blood cell volume (size), average value = 87 microm^3, with a range of 80-96; enlarged (large values) = anemia because of B12 deficiency; small = iron deficiency anemia or thalassemia; equation = (hematocrit x 10) / RBC count (millions/mm^3); measured in microm^3

hematology: multiplication factor for WBC

50

hematology: the average number of WBCs for males vs females

7,000-9,000mm^3 vs. 5,000-7,000 mm^3

hematology: agglutination

the clumping of RBC as antibodies detect antigens, used in blood typing

electrocardiography: the cardiovascular system consists of

the heart and blood vessels

electrocardiography: pulmonary circuit

the route that the blood takes to receive oxygen in the lungs, from the heart

electrocardiography: systemic circuit

the route that the blood takes from the heart to be distributed to the body tissues

electrocardiography: the beating of the heart is accompanied by both

electrical activity and sound

electrocardiography: electrocardiogram

aka ECG, the pattern of electrical activity produced by each heart beat cycle

electrocardiography: cardiac cycle

the events that occur during a normal heartbeat, including electrical events and heart sounds, and changes in pressure due to changes in blood volume within the heart

electrocardiography: what provides the energy to force the blood through the circulatory system?

high arterial pressure

electrocardiography: cardiac contractions are _______ (dependent upon / independent of) nerve supply

independent of

electrocardiography: the heart's pacemaker

SA node

electrocardiography: the only electrical connection between the atria and ventricles

AV node

electrocardiography: the action potential spreads at a ____ pace through the AV node, in order to

slow, allow for adequate ventricular filling

electrocardiography: when do valves close?

automatically whenever there is a pressure difference across the valve that would cause backflow of blood

electrocardiography: tachycardia

higher than normal heart rate

electrocardiography: bradycardia

lower than normal heart rate

electrocardiography: RR interval

the distance from 1 R to the next

electrocardiography: PR interval

the distance from the start of the p wave to the start of the QRS complex

electrocardiography: QT interval

the distance from the start of the QRS complex to the end of the T pwave

electrocardiography: what points of an ECG are systole? diastole?

QRS - end of T; end of T to end of P

electrocardiography: typical PR, QT, and RR intervals in seconds

.2, .3-.4, .75

electrocardiography: the closer two R's are to each other, the _____ the RR interval, and the ____ the heart rate

smaller, higher

electrocardiography: what marks the start of systole?

AV valves closing and the first heart sound

electrocardiography: what marks the start of diastole?

SL valves closing and the second heart sound

electrocardiography: normal, hypertension, and hypotension BP values

120/80, 140/90, 90/60

electrocardiography: what do you notice about the timing of the ECG and heart sounds from the experiment?

the sounds were slightly delayed (shifted to the right) because they had to travel to the carotid artery in the neck where we were measuring

electrocardiography: which position gave the highest BP values? lowest?

standing, supine

graphing: which variable goes on the x axis? y?

independent, dependent

hematology: match blood type with antigens and then antibodies

A: A, B; B: B, A; AB: AB, none; O: none, AB

hematology: how do you test for blood type?

introduce an antibody (A, B, or Rh) and if it clumps, then it's the same blood type as the antibody introduced (ie. if you introduce Anti-A and it clumps but it doesn't clump with Anti-B, then it's type A blood; for Rh, if it clumps it's positive)

hematology: agglutination (definition + significance)

the clumping of red blood cells in the presence of an antibody; has implications for blood donor-recipient compatibilities and blood typing; can be fatal

hematology: anemia (definition + what tests determine it)

insufficient rbc (<45% hematocrit) causing o2 delivery problems; drops low enough, interferes with energy production, forcing the cells into anaerobic glycolysis; hematocrit, MCHC, MCV, RBC count

hematology: polycythemia + chronic emphysema (definition + mechanism responsible for link)

high RBC count/ratio to other cells (poly), insufficient O2 (emphy); the body detects hypoxia (low O2) which is a signal to upregulate erythropoieosis in the bone marrow (kidneys release erythropoietin) to try to get more O2 carrying capacity. But this isn't the problem, so now you just have too many RBCs

hematology: why are hematocrits, Hg concentrations and erythrocyte counts generally lower for females than for males?

men have more muscle, meaning there's more for the blood to travel through, increasing the demand for O2

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