the study of physiological responses to behavioral stimuli
physiological parameters commonly measured by psychophysiologists, and why are they of interest?
electrodermal activity, heart rate, skin temperature, respiration rate all respond to signals from the autonomic nervous system
galvanic skin response, another name for electrodermal activity, a physiological parameter commonly measured by psychophysiologists using the unit, microsiemens (uS)
GSR: the process
eccrine sweat glands on palms of hands and bottom of feet, innervated by sympathetic ANS, act as variable resistors - as they fill with fluid, skin resistance to an electrical current decreases; meanwhile, sympa ANS increases sweat production, which triggers an increase in skin conductance, allowing electricity to pass freely through the structure even more; after the stress is removed, GSR decreases again (slowly)
how is skin temperature looked at by psychophysiologists?
circulation in the microvasculature is controlled by the ANS and is able to regulate temperature and O2 supply to tissues because of its ability to be varied; a change in skin temperature, for example, can occur due to a change in emotions (stress responses activate the sympa ANS reduce peripheral circulation, lowering the temperature, while a strong signal from the para ANS causes increased peripheral circulation locally
how is pulse rate looked at by psychophysiologists?
it increases as a result of increased norepinephrine due to upregulation of the sympa ANS, which occurs in situations such as high stress scenarios
what did the psychophysiology I lab examine?
the ANS response to various stimuli by measuring a change in skin conductance, skin temperature, and peripheral pulse rate
psychophysiology: what happened to skin conductance in response to being startled, and what does this suggest is occurring in the skin/
increased, likely because sweat production increased (a side effect of the sympa ns), and since more sweat was being secreted there was more water, and water is a good conductor of electricity, so it went up
psychophysiology: was there a noticeable change in the volunteer's skin temperature during milk stress?
not really (hundredths of a degree)
psychophysiology: what happened to skin temperature during stress and what branch of the autonomic nervous system do your data suggest was active during it?
it went down, signifying that the sympathetic nervous system was in place because blood was being conserved in the body's corp (the heart) rather than extremities
psychophysiology: what happened to pulse rate during stress, and why physiologically did this occur?
increased because the heart was pumping at a more rapid rate (up regulation) to circulate oxygen and other nutrients more quickly
psychophysiology: why might some countries not accept polygraph tests as evidence in a court of law?
even mild stress, such as being questioned, can cause an up regulation in the sympathetic nervous system, which is what the polygraph is testing
hematology: blood provides a medium for ____
homeostasis in the cells' environment
hematology: jobs of blood
bathes cells within the human body, transports O2 and nutrients to body cells, removes CO2 and waste products from cells, links various organ systems together through the action of hormones, provides buffers for acid-base balance, destroys foreign organisms, distributes and conserves body heat
the prevention of blood loss; a clotting/coagulation system
hematology: the average amount of blood in human body, male vs. female
hematology: blood composition & percentages
liquid plasma (54%), formed elements - red blood cells (45%), white blood cells and platelets (1%)
hematology: the protein hemoglobin
a protein that enables RBC's to carry O2 to body cells and CO2 away from cells
hematology: blood typing
a system of classification based on the presence of specific glycoproteins on the outer surface of the RBC plasma membrane (agglutinogens), genetically determined
hematology: white blood cells are divided into ______
granulocytes and agranulocytes
hematology: granulocytes include
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
hematology: agranulocytes include
lymphocytes and monocytes
hematology: neutrophils (identifying features)
multilobed nucleus, inconspicuous granules
hematology: eosinophils (identifying features)
bilobed nucleus, red granules
hematology: basophils (identifying features)
lobed nucleus with very large, dark granules
hematology: lymphocytes (identifying features)
spherical, large nucleus with pale blue cytoplasm
hematology: monocytes (identifying features)
kidney shaped nucleus, gray-blue cytoplasm
hematology: antigens present on RBC membranes of each type
A (A), B (B), A & B (AB), neither (O)
hematology: antibodies present in plasma of each type
B (A), A (B), none (AB), both A & B (O)
hematology: serial dilution
when you start with a known concentration, take a percentage of it and add to water to dilute, lightening the solution color and thus the concentration; a spectrophotometer measures the color in absorbance output, which decreases with the concentration; by plotting a standard curve of absorbance (y) vs. concentration (x), you can find the unkown's absorbance and then put it on the plot to find the concentration
hematology: multiplication factor for RBC
hematology: average number of RBCs, males vs. females
5.4 +/- .8million/mm^3 vs. 4.8 +/- .6million/mm^3
hematology: MCHC, what is it and what is the equation
mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (in RBC); normal value is 32-36%; useful for evaluating the clinical response of an anemic patient; elevated levels associated with spherocytosis and diminished can be iron deficiency, chronic blood loss or thalassemia; equation = (Hb in g/dL blood / hemtocrit in %) x 100
hematology: MCV, what is it and what is the equation
mean corpuscular volume, a measure of the average red blood cell volume (size), average value = 87 microm^3, with a range of 80-96; enlarged (large values) = anemia because of B12 deficiency; small = iron deficiency anemia or thalassemia; equation = (hematocrit x 10) / RBC count (millions/mm^3); measured in microm^3
hematology: multiplication factor for WBC
hematology: the average number of WBCs for males vs females
7,000-9,000mm^3 vs. 5,000-7,000 mm^3
the clumping of RBC as antibodies detect antigens, used in blood typing
electrocardiography: the cardiovascular system consists of
the heart and blood vessels
electrocardiography: pulmonary circuit
the route that the blood takes to receive oxygen in the lungs, from the heart
electrocardiography: systemic circuit
the route that the blood takes from the heart to be distributed to the body tissues
electrocardiography: the beating of the heart is accompanied by both
electrical activity and sound
aka ECG, the pattern of electrical activity produced by each heart beat cycle
electrocardiography: cardiac cycle
the events that occur during a normal heartbeat, including electrical events and heart sounds, and changes in pressure due to changes in blood volume within the heart
electrocardiography: what provides the energy to force the blood through the circulatory system?
high arterial pressure
electrocardiography: cardiac contractions are _______ (dependent upon / independent of) nerve supply
electrocardiography: the heart's pacemaker
electrocardiography: the only electrical connection between the atria and ventricles
electrocardiography: the action potential spreads at a ____ pace through the AV node, in order to
slow, allow for adequate ventricular filling
electrocardiography: when do valves close?
automatically whenever there is a pressure difference across the valve that would cause backflow of blood
higher than normal heart rate
lower than normal heart rate
electrocardiography: RR interval
the distance from 1 R to the next
electrocardiography: PR interval
the distance from the start of the p wave to the start of the QRS complex
electrocardiography: QT interval
the distance from the start of the QRS complex to the end of the T pwave
electrocardiography: what points of an ECG are systole? diastole?
QRS - end of T; end of T to end of P
electrocardiography: typical PR, QT, and RR intervals in seconds
.2, .3-.4, .75
electrocardiography: the closer two R's are to each other, the _____ the RR interval, and the ____ the heart rate
electrocardiography: what marks the start of systole?
AV valves closing and the first heart sound
electrocardiography: what marks the start of diastole?
SL valves closing and the second heart sound
electrocardiography: normal, hypertension, and hypotension BP values
120/80, 140/90, 90/60
electrocardiography: what do you notice about the timing of the ECG and heart sounds from the experiment?
the sounds were slightly delayed (shifted to the right) because they had to travel to the carotid artery in the neck where we were measuring
electrocardiography: which position gave the highest BP values? lowest?
graphing: which variable goes on the x axis? y?
hematology: match blood type with antigens and then antibodies
A: A, B; B: B, A; AB: AB, none; O: none, AB
hematology: how do you test for blood type?
introduce an antibody (A, B, or Rh) and if it clumps, then it's the same blood type as the antibody introduced (ie. if you introduce Anti-A and it clumps but it doesn't clump with Anti-B, then it's type A blood; for Rh, if it clumps it's positive)
hematology: agglutination (definition + significance)
the clumping of red blood cells in the presence of an antibody; has implications for blood donor-recipient compatibilities and blood typing; can be fatal
hematology: anemia (definition + what tests determine it)
insufficient rbc (<45% hematocrit) causing o2 delivery problems; drops low enough, interferes with energy production, forcing the cells into anaerobic glycolysis; hematocrit, MCHC, MCV, RBC count
hematology: polycythemia + chronic emphysema (definition + mechanism responsible for link)
high RBC count/ratio to other cells (poly), insufficient O2 (emphy); the body detects hypoxia (low O2) which is a signal to upregulate erythropoieosis in the bone marrow (kidneys release erythropoietin) to try to get more O2 carrying capacity. But this isn't the problem, so now you just have too many RBCs
hematology: why are hematocrits, Hg concentrations and erythrocyte counts generally lower for females than for males?
men have more muscle, meaning there's more for the blood to travel through, increasing the demand for O2