Module 17: Psychodynamic and Humanistic Perspectives on Personality

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personality

Individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

(Sigmund) Freud

Founder of psychoanalysis.

psychoanalysis

A therapeutic technique that attempts to provide insight into thoughts and actions by exposing and interpreting the underlying unconscious motives and conflicts.

psychodynamic perspective

View of personality that retains some aspects of Freudian theory but is less likely to see unresolved childhood conflicts as a source of personality development.

free association

Method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.

preconscious

Region of the mind holding information that is not conscious but is retrievable into conscious awareness.

unconscious

Region of the mind that is a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories.

id

Part of personality that consists of unconcious, psychic energy and strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives; operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.

superego

Part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement and for future aspirations.

ego

Largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that mediates among the demands of the other two parts and reality; operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.

defense mechanisms

In psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.

psychosexual stages

Childhood stages of development during which the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on different parts of the body.

oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital (OAPLG)

Order of psychosexual stages

(Alfred) Adler

Neo-Freudian who thought social tensions were more important than sexual tensions in the development of personality.

inferiority complex

A condition the comes from being unable to compensate for normal inferiority feelings.

(Alfred) Adler

Who created the inferiority complex?

Freud

Who created psychodynamic perspective?

Freud

Who created free association?

Freud

Who created preconcious/unconcious?

Freud

Who created id, superego, ego?

Freud

Who created defense mechanisms?

Freud

Who created psychosexual stages?

(Carl) Jung

Neo-Freudian who believed that humans share a collective unconcious.

collective unconcious

A shared, inherited resevoir of memory traces from our ancestors.

(Karen) Horney

Neo-Freudian who found psychoanalysis negatively biased toward women and believed cultural variables are the foundation of personality development.

projective test

Personality test that provides ambiguos stimuli to trigger projection of inner thoughts and feelings.

humanistic psychology

Perspective that focuses on the study of concious experience, the individual's freedom to choose, and the individual's capacity for personal growth.

(Abraham) Maslow

Humanistic psychologist who proposed the heirarchy of needs.

self-actualization

The ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill potential.

(Carl) Rogers

Humanistic psychologist who stressed the impotance of acceptance, genuineness, and empathy in fostering human growth.

unconditional positive regard

An attitude of total acceptance toward another person.

self-concept

All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves in ana answer to the question, "Who am I?"

Repression, Regression, Reaction formation, Rationalization, Denial, Displacement, Projection

What are the 7 defense mechanisms?

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