Peace of Augsburg 1555
treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Lutheran princes, on September 25, 1555, at the imperial city of Augsburg. whoever is in power in a territory, that is the religion the territory followed
cujus region, ejus religion
whos rule, his religon
coalition of Protestant German states that was formed in 1608 to defend the rights, lands and person of each member. formed after the Holy Roman Emperor and Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria reestablished Roman Catholicism in Donauwörth in 1607 and after a majority of the Reichstag had decided in 1608 that the renewal of the Peace of Augsburg of 1555 should be conditional upon the restoration of all church land appropriated since 1552.
In 1618 the Protestant estates of Bohemia rebelled against the Roman Catholic King Ferdinand II and offered the crown of Bohemia to Frederick, choosing him since he was the leader of the Protestant Union, a military alliance founded by his father. Frederick duly accepted the crown (coronation on 4 November 1619), which triggered the outbreak of the Thirty Years War, Lost palitinate and bohemia.
kings powers in king in parliament
The King in Parliament
.King could no longer
.make royal appointments
.maintain a standing army during peacetime without Parliament's permission.
home of frederick V. area of germany. seized by french after war.
confederation of Roman Catholic German states formed on July 10, 1609 to counteract the Protestant Union (formed 1608), whereby the participating states concluded an alliance "for the defence of the Catholic religion and peace within the Empire.".
Maximillian. (Duke of Bavaria)
Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and a prince-elector (Kurfürst) of the Holy Roman Empire. In December 1607 his troops occupied the city, and vigorous steps were taken to restore the supremacy of Catholicism. Some Protestant princes, alarmed at this action, formed the Protestant Union to defend their interests, which was answered in 1609 by the establishment of the Catholic League, in the formation of which Maximilian took an important part. Under his leadership an army was set on foot, but his policy was strictly defensive and he refused to allow the League to become a tool in the hands of the House of Habsburg.
bohemian phase of the 30 years war
Frederick V promised to be king if he led bohemians.
Protestants were smashed
Frederick loses Bohemia and Palatinate.
defenestratoin of prague 1618
elped to trigger prolonged conflict within Bohemia and beyond. Defenestration is the act of throwing someone out of a window. protestants went into the castle and threw regents out the third floor window along with the Regents' secretary, Philip Fabricius. ignited 30 years war
ferdinand of styria
His ultracatholicism caused immediate turmoil in his non-Catholic subjects, especially in Bohemia. He did not respect the religious liberties granted by the Letter of Majesty conceded, signed by the previous emperor, Rudolph II, which had guaranteed the freedom of religion to the nobles and the inhabitants of the cities. Additionally, Ferdinand was an absolutist monarch and infringed several historical privileges of the nobles. Given the relatively great number of Protestants in the kingdom, including some of the nobles, the king's unpopularity soon caused the Bohemian Revolt
Tilly (Johann Tserclaes)
commanded the Imperial forces in the Thirty Years' War. He had a string of important victories against the Protestants but was then defeated by forces led by the King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. Along with Duke Albrecht von Wallenstein of Friedland and Mecklenburg, he was one of two chief commanders of the Holy Roman Empire's forces.
Danish Phase (1625-1629)
Christian IV of denmark went to empire to avenge deaths of Protestants. they lost. edict of restitution was put in place.
The growing power of the Catholics in North Germany in and after 1623 was a threat to the Danish holdings in the Schleswig-Holstein duchies and almost induced Christian to intervene directly in the Thirty Years' War. For a time, however, he stayed his hand. The urgent solicitations of the western powers, and his fear that Gustavus Adolphus should supplant him as the champion of the Protestant cause, finally led him to plunge into war on 9 May 1625. He also feared that Sweden could use a war to further expand their holdings in the Baltic Sea. ruled for 59 years, fondly remembered
edict of restitution 1629
ferdinands attempt to snuff out protestants. making all protestant territories catholic and making it illegal to be protestant.
Swedish Phase (1630-1648)
lutheran country. king of sweden gustavus adolphus, was a protestant, swedes invaded empire with good military. not completely a religous war, there are some political reasons for invasion. swedish were winning, but after the battle of lutzen lost adolphus. set up final phase by cardinal richeliu. this turned war from religous to political
the lion of the north who was king of sweden during the 30 years war. great military leader. With a superb military machine with good weapons, excellent training, and effective field artillery, all backed by a highly efficient government back home that paid the bills on time, Gustavus Adolphus was poised to make himself a major European leader, but he was killed in battle in 1632.
battle of lutzen
swedes won this battle but lost gustavus adolphus which led to loss of direction in the military, resulting in the surrender by the swedes.
general von wallenstein
astrologist military leader used by charles the IV. Bohemian soldier and politician, who offered his services, and an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men during the Danish period (1625-1629) of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), to the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II. He became the supreme commander of the armies of the Habsburg Monarchy and one of the major figures of the Thirty Years' War.
funded protestants and adolphus's army.
most destructive phrase. france against the hapsburgs. political not religious. french catholics fighting alongside protestants. french won and the peace of westphalia was introduced ending the 30 years war.
peace of westphalia 1648
everything went back to 1624 status, most went back before 30 years war began. went on with cujus religio, ejios reign. effected popes power, no longer operated as kings and queens. new balance of power, hapsburg power was reduced, and the balance of power became the reason for war not letting countries get too powerful.
5 results of the 30 years war
1. . Germany wrecked and decentralized
2. 2. Last major religious war in West
-Wars will be fought over balance of power, economics, etc. not religion
3. Modern nation state
-Every state has the right to pursue its own interests
4. France as potential new superpower of Europe
5. began age of well disciplined national armies instead of mercenaries