biomass is deposited and buried with sediment instead of decaying.
118) The formation of fossil fuels begins when:
1) The form of oxygen that combines three atoms of oxygen into each molecule is called ________.
10) The lowest layer of the atmosphere is the ________.
is the study of the atmosphere and its related weather systems.
1) The term meteorology:
a comprehensive statistical analysis of aggregate weather conditions in a specific place or region.
2) The BEST definition of the term climate is:
a hypothesis that has been extensively tested and is generally accepted by the scientific community.
3) In the process of scientific inquiry, a theory is best defined as:
4) An interacting group of parts that is fueled by energy and works to accomplish the movement of matter or energy is called:
7) Which one of the following is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
8) Which one of the gases listed below is more important meteorologically (that is, is more important in weather processes) than the others?
drops about 6.5°C
9) On the AVERAGE, for every 1 km increase in altitude in the troposphere, the air temperature ________.
12) The triatomic form of oxygen (O3) is known as ________.
14) Ozone is concentrated in the ________.
16) Practically all clouds and storms occur in this layer of the atmosphere.
17) The normal lapse rate in the troposphere is about ________ per kilometer.
at some point between the Tropic of Capricorn and the equator, heading northward
20) At noon on February 21, the Sun is overhead ________.
21) The storage of heat in the lower layer of the atmosphere produced by certain heat absorbing gases is called the ________.
22) Which one of the following latitudes best represents the location where the Sun is directly overhead at noon on April 21?
23) On the average, how much of the Sun's energy that is intercepted by Earth is reflected back to space?
Days and nights are equal in length everywhere.
24) Which one of the following statements is true about the equinoxes?
25) On this date the length of daylight gets progressively longer going south from the equator.
26) The spring equinox in the Northern Hemisphere occurs on ________.
none of these
27) The North Pole has a higher noon Sun angle than New York City on this date.
28) The 90° angle solar rays are striking the Tropic of Cancer on ________.
29) The 90° angle solar rays are striking the Tropic of Capricorn on ________.
30) New York City has its greatest length of daylight on ________.
31) The fall equinox in the Southern Hemisphere occurs on this date.
32) The summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere occurs on this date.
33) This process involves the movement of a mass or substance.
34) Earth receives energy from the Sun in this way.
36) The transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity is
37) On the average, how much of the Sun's energy that is intercepted by Earth is absorbed by the atmosphere and clouds?
water vapor and carbon dioxide
38) The two most important heat absorbing gases in the lower atmosphere are ________.
the amount of water vapor in the air
39) A very important control of the DAILY range of temperature is ________.
the average temperatures of the warmest and coldest months
42) The annual range of temperature may be described as the difference between ________.
cooler summer temperatures than an inland location at the same latitude
43) A place located along a windward coast will probably have ________.
there is a greater percentage of water surface in the Southern Hemisphere
46) The annual temperature range at most latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere is much smaller than that in the Northern Hemisphere. The reason for this is that ________.
119) Air may best be described as:
120) Which one of the following is the MOST abundant gas in the atmosphere?
nitrogen and oxygen
121) Which two gases make up a combined total of 99% of clean, dry air in the homosphere?
122) Scientists believe that a growing amount of this gas in the atmosphere will probably bring about a warming of the lower atmosphere.
in plant growth that result in less CO2 being absorbed during the dormant season
123) What best explains the "bumps" seen in the seen in the CO2 concentrations on the graph above?
124) Which of the following is NOT a variable component of the atmosphere?
125) This variable atmospheric component can exist in all three states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas) at the temperatures and pressures that normally exist on Earth.
126) This atmospheric component absorbs damaging ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.
127) Ninety percent of our atmosphere lies below an altitude of about:
decreases at a decreasing rate.
128) With an increase in altitude, air pressure:
the weight of the air above.
129) Atmospheric pressure is caused by:
131) Which of the following is the MOST important atmospheric component with regard to the Earth's climate?
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere.
132) The four thermal layers of the atmosphere in order beginning from the surface are:
region where air "turns over."
133) The term troposphere literally means:
mesospherebegins at a height of 50 km
134) Which of the following associations is CORRECT?
135) The "weather sphere" is in the
136) The lowest temperatures in the atmosphere exist in the
137) Ozone is concentrated in the
138) The heterosphere and ionosphere are BOTH found in the
139) A primary difference between the concepts of weather and climate is the
140) Which of these was NOT involved with the formation and evolution of our present atmosphere?
80 - 400 km.
141) The approximate altitude of auroral displays is
142) The ionosphere is an atmospheric region defined on the basis of
144) The normal lapse rate applies to the
the chemical composition of the air.
147) The basic elements of weather and climate include all of the following, except:
Which one of the following gases has the greatest effect on weather?
Studies have shown that on average ozone depletion is greatest over this area.
Answer: has already created a reduction in ozone-depleting gases in the atmosphere.
151) The Montreal Protocol
fall as rain and thus cool the Earth's surface.
152) The first function of water vapor in the Earth's original atmosphere was to
when there is a lot of solar flare activity.
153) The aurora borealis will most likely be stronger
provide satellite data about precipitation in the low latitudes, over both land and water.
154) The primary function of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission is to:
166) The tropopause is found where the air temperature stops decreasing with height.
167) The oceans cover about 50 percent of the Earth's surface.
169) Although carbon dioxide is present only in small amounts, it is still more significant meteorologically than the other more abundant gases composing dry air.
172) At one time the Earth's atmosphere contained no free oxygen.
173) Scientific hypotheses are rejected when they do not agree with observed data.
177) Auroral displays increase conspicuously at times when sunspots are most numerous.
178) A scientific hypothesis may be regarded as a tentative explanation of observed facts or events.
179) Vertical motion in the lower atmosphere is strongly related to the environmental lapse rate.
182) The biosphere interacts with the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere.
183) The rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over the last century is due primarily to the burning of fossil fuels.
184) Depletion of the ozone layer leads to increased amounts of UV radiation striking the surface of the Earth.
186) The environmental lapse rate is not constant.
188) The ions in the ionosphere come primarily from oxygen and nitrogen.
189) Earth is considered a closed system in terms of matter.
correctly predict observed facts or events
190) If a scientific theory is to be accepted and considered useful, it must be able to: ________.
191) The stratosphere is home to a layer of gas known as ________.
192) The primary usefulness of satellites in observing the weather is their ability to provide ________.
193) The state of the atmosphere at a given time and place defines the term ________.
194) A lightweight instrument package that is carried aloft by a balloon and transmits data on temperature, pressure, and humidity is called a(n) ________.
195) That portion of the atmosphere where the makeup of the air is uniform in terms of the proportions of its component gases is termed the ________.
Absorption of solar ultraviolet by ozone.
196) What causes the region of warmer temperatures found in the stratosphere?
temperature-humidity-clouds-precipitation-air pressure-wind speed-wind direction
197) List four of the basic elements of weather and climate.
198) The Earth's physical environment is traditionally divided into three major parts, one solid, one liquid, and one gaseous. List these three parts.
the Sun and the Earth's interior
199) What are the two energy sources for the Earth system?
40 percent of the Sun's energy is reflected.
200) Suppose the albedo of a planet is measured to be 40 percent. This means that
warmer to cooler substances.
201) During natural processes, heat transfer is always from
remains constant at 23.5 degrees.
202) During the Earth's orbit around the Sun, the inclination (tilt) of the Earth's axis
energy is spread over a larger area.
203) Low sun angles result in reduced solar energy because
Days and nights are equal in length in all parts of the world.
204) Which of the following correctly describes the equinoxes?
205) Flagstaff, AZ is at 35 degrees N latitude. What is the angle of the Sun's noon rays here on March 21?
206) At 45 degrees S latitude, the angle of the noon Sun is lowest and the length of daylight is shortest on:
208) The first day of the climatological season of summer is:
longer than those emitted by the Sun.
213) The wavelengths emitted by the Earth are:
214) On the average, how much of the Sun's energy that is intercepted by the Earth system is reflected to space?
215) The length of daylight gets progressively longer going south from the equator on
216) The spring equinox in the Northern Hemisphere starts on
217) The 90 degrees angle rays strike the Tropic of Cancer on
218) New York City has its greatest length of daylight on
219) The Earth receives energy from the Sun by
220) The process of ________ involves the movement of a mass or substance.
221) Wind is an example of
222) Thermals and advection are both types of:
228) At what time of year is the Earth's axis not tilted either toward or away from the Sun?
229) During the spring equinox in the northern hemisphere, the circle of illumination passes directly through the
230) The date that the Sun "sets" at the North Pole is
231) The date that the Sun "rises" at the North Pole is
233) The surface with the HIGHEST albedo is
0.4 and 0.7 micrometers.
Wavelengths of the visible spectrum are between
temperatures either increase or decrease.
240) If an imbalance occurs between incoming and outgoing energy at the Earth's surface
Northern Hemisphere winter.
241) Earth is closest to the Sun during
the Earth's surface.
242) Most of the solar energy absorbed by planet Earth and its atmosphere is absorbed by
244) Which of the following gases does not absorb any portion of incoming solar radiation?
absorption of Earth radiation.
245) The atmosphere is heated primarily by
inclination of Earth's rotation axis.
252) The primary cause of the Earth's seasons is
253) Atmosphere is strongly ________ with respect to terrestrial radiation.
257) Early in January the Earth is closer to the Sun than at any other time of year. This position is termed:
258) The atmosphere is nearly ________ to terrestrial radiation that has a wavelength between 8 and 11 micrometers.
260) Which of the following gases is the best absorber of ultraviolet light?
297) The blue color of the sky is due to ________ of light.
298) The intensity of the Sun's rays at a place is determined by the time of year and the ________ of the place.
299) The brightness of the daytime sky is due to ________ of light.