EASC

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biomass is deposited and buried with sediment instead of decaying.

118) The formation of fossil fuels begins when:

ozone

1) The form of oxygen that combines three atoms of oxygen into each molecule is called ________.

troposphere

10) The lowest layer of the atmosphere is the ________.

is the study of the atmosphere and its related weather systems.

1) The term meteorology:

a comprehensive statistical analysis of aggregate weather conditions in a specific place or region.

2) The BEST definition of the term climate is:

a hypothesis that has been extensively tested and is generally accepted by the scientific community.

3) In the process of scientific inquiry, a theory is best defined as:

a system.

4) An interacting group of parts that is fueled by energy and works to accomplish the movement of matter or energy is called:

nitrogen

7) Which one of the following is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?

carbon dioxide

8) Which one of the gases listed below is more important meteorologically (that is, is more important in weather processes) than the others?

drops about 6.5°C

9) On the AVERAGE, for every 1 km increase in altitude in the troposphere, the air temperature ________.

Answer: ozone

12) The triatomic form of oxygen (O3) is known as ________.

Answer: stratosphere

14) Ozone is concentrated in the ________.

troposphere

16) Practically all clouds and storms occur in this layer of the atmosphere.

6.5°C

17) The normal lapse rate in the troposphere is about ________ per kilometer.

at some point between the Tropic of Capricorn and the equator, heading northward

20) At noon on February 21, the Sun is overhead ________.

greenhouse effect

21) The storage of heat in the lower layer of the atmosphere produced by certain heat absorbing gases is called the ________.

23.5°N

22) Which one of the following latitudes best represents the location where the Sun is directly overhead at noon on April 21?

30%

23) On the average, how much of the Sun's energy that is intercepted by Earth is reflected back to space?

Days and nights are equal in length everywhere.

24) Which one of the following statements is true about the equinoxes?

December 21

25) On this date the length of daylight gets progressively longer going south from the equator.

March 21

26) The spring equinox in the Northern Hemisphere occurs on ________.

none of these

27) The North Pole has a higher noon Sun angle than New York City on this date.

June 21

28) The 90° angle solar rays are striking the Tropic of Cancer on ________.

December 21

29) The 90° angle solar rays are striking the Tropic of Capricorn on ________.

June 21

30) New York City has its greatest length of daylight on ________.

March 21

31) The fall equinox in the Southern Hemisphere occurs on this date.

June 21

32) The summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere occurs on this date.

convection

33) This process involves the movement of a mass or substance.

radiation

34) Earth receives energy from the Sun in this way.

conduction

36) The transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity is

20%

37) On the average, how much of the Sun's energy that is intercepted by Earth is absorbed by the atmosphere and clouds?

water vapor and carbon dioxide

38) The two most important heat absorbing gases in the lower atmosphere are ________.

the amount of water vapor in the air

39) A very important control of the DAILY range of temperature is ________.

the average temperatures of the warmest and coldest months

42) The annual range of temperature may be described as the difference between ________.

cooler summer temperatures than an inland location at the same latitude

43) A place located along a windward coast will probably have ________.

there is a greater percentage of water surface in the Southern Hemisphere

46) The annual temperature range at most latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere is much smaller than that in the Northern Hemisphere. The reason for this is that ________.

mixture.

119) Air may best be described as:

nitrogen

120) Which one of the following is the MOST abundant gas in the atmosphere?

nitrogen and oxygen

121) Which two gases make up a combined total of 99% of clean, dry air in the homosphere?

carbon dioxide

122) Scientists believe that a growing amount of this gas in the atmosphere will probably bring about a warming of the lower atmosphere.

in plant growth that result in less CO2 being absorbed during the dormant season

123) What best explains the "bumps" seen in the seen in the CO2 concentrations on the graph above?

argon

124) Which of the following is NOT a variable component of the atmosphere?

water

125) This variable atmospheric component can exist in all three states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas) at the temperatures and pressures that normally exist on Earth.

ozone

126) This atmospheric component absorbs damaging ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.

16 km.

127) Ninety percent of our atmosphere lies below an altitude of about:

decreases at a decreasing rate.

128) With an increase in altitude, air pressure:

the weight of the air above.

129) Atmospheric pressure is caused by:

water vapor

131) Which of the following is the MOST important atmospheric component with regard to the Earth's climate?

troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere.

132) The four thermal layers of the atmosphere in order beginning from the surface are:

region where air "turns over."

133) The term troposphere literally means:

mesospherebegins at a height of 50 km

134) Which of the following associations is CORRECT?

troposphere.

135) The "weather sphere" is in the

mesosphere.

136) The lowest temperatures in the atmosphere exist in the

stratosphere.

137) Ozone is concentrated in the

thermosphere.

138) The heterosphere and ionosphere are BOTH found in the

period involved.

139) A primary difference between the concepts of weather and climate is the

stratification

140) Which of these was NOT involved with the formation and evolution of our present atmosphere?

80 - 400 km.

141) The approximate altitude of auroral displays is

electrical charges.

142) The ionosphere is an atmospheric region defined on the basis of

troposphere.

144) The normal lapse rate applies to the

the chemical composition of the air.

147) The basic elements of weather and climate include all of the following, except:

water vapor

Which one of the following gases has the greatest effect on weather?

Antarctica

Studies have shown that on average ozone depletion is greatest over this area.

Answer: has already created a reduction in ozone-depleting gases in the atmosphere.

151) The Montreal Protocol

fall as rain and thus cool the Earth's surface.

152) The first function of water vapor in the Earth's original atmosphere was to

when there is a lot of solar flare activity.

153) The aurora borealis will most likely be stronger

provide satellite data about precipitation in the low latitudes, over both land and water.

154) The primary function of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission is to:

True

166) The tropopause is found where the air temperature stops decreasing with height.

True

167) The oceans cover about 50 percent of the Earth's surface.

True

169) Although carbon dioxide is present only in small amounts, it is still more significant meteorologically than the other more abundant gases composing dry air.

True

172) At one time the Earth's atmosphere contained no free oxygen.

True

173) Scientific hypotheses are rejected when they do not agree with observed data.

True

177) Auroral displays increase conspicuously at times when sunspots are most numerous.

True

178) A scientific hypothesis may be regarded as a tentative explanation of observed facts or events.

True

179) Vertical motion in the lower atmosphere is strongly related to the environmental lapse rate.

True

182) The biosphere interacts with the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere.

True

183) The rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over the last century is due primarily to the burning of fossil fuels.

True

184) Depletion of the ozone layer leads to increased amounts of UV radiation striking the surface of the Earth.

True

186) The environmental lapse rate is not constant.

True

188) The ions in the ionosphere come primarily from oxygen and nitrogen.

True

189) Earth is considered a closed system in terms of matter.

correctly predict observed facts or events

190) If a scientific theory is to be accepted and considered useful, it must be able to: ________.

ozone

191) The stratosphere is home to a layer of gas known as ________.

cloud images

192) The primary usefulness of satellites in observing the weather is their ability to provide ________.

weather

193) The state of the atmosphere at a given time and place defines the term ________.

radiosonde

194) A lightweight instrument package that is carried aloft by a balloon and transmits data on temperature, pressure, and humidity is called a(n) ________.

homosphere

195) That portion of the atmosphere where the makeup of the air is uniform in terms of the proportions of its component gases is termed the ________.

Absorption of solar ultraviolet by ozone.

196) What causes the region of warmer temperatures found in the stratosphere?

temperature-humidity-clouds-precipitation-air pressure-wind speed-wind direction

197) List four of the basic elements of weather and climate.

lithosphere(solid)-hydrosphere(liquid)-atmosphere(gaseous)

198) The Earth's physical environment is traditionally divided into three major parts, one solid, one liquid, and one gaseous. List these three parts.

the Sun and the Earth's interior

199) What are the two energy sources for the Earth system?

40 percent of the Sun's energy is reflected.

200) Suppose the albedo of a planet is measured to be 40 percent. This means that

warmer to cooler substances.

201) During natural processes, heat transfer is always from

remains constant at 23.5 degrees.

202) During the Earth's orbit around the Sun, the inclination (tilt) of the Earth's axis

energy is spread over a larger area.

203) Low sun angles result in reduced solar energy because

Days and nights are equal in length in all parts of the world.

204) Which of the following correctly describes the equinoxes?

55 degrees

205) Flagstaff, AZ is at 35 degrees N latitude. What is the angle of the Sun's noon rays here on March 21?

June 21.

206) At 45 degrees S latitude, the angle of the noon Sun is lowest and the length of daylight is shortest on:

June 1.

208) The first day of the climatological season of summer is:

longer than those emitted by the Sun.

213) The wavelengths emitted by the Earth are:

30 percent

214) On the average, how much of the Sun's energy that is intercepted by the Earth system is reflected to space?

December 21.

215) The length of daylight gets progressively longer going south from the equator on

March 21.

216) The spring equinox in the Northern Hemisphere starts on

June 21.

217) The 90 degrees angle rays strike the Tropic of Cancer on

June 21.

218) New York City has its greatest length of daylight on

radiation.

219) The Earth receives energy from the Sun by

convection

220) The process of ________ involves the movement of a mass or substance.

convection.

221) Wind is an example of

convection.

222) Thermals and advection are both types of:

autumnal equinox

228) At what time of year is the Earth's axis not tilted either toward or away from the Sun?

poles.

229) During the spring equinox in the northern hemisphere, the circle of illumination passes directly through the

September 22.

230) The date that the Sun "sets" at the North Pole is

March 21.

231) The date that the Sun "rises" at the North Pole is

fresh snow.

233) The surface with the HIGHEST albedo is

0.4 and 0.7 micrometers.

Wavelengths of the visible spectrum are between

temperatures either increase or decrease.

240) If an imbalance occurs between incoming and outgoing energy at the Earth's surface

Northern Hemisphere winter.

241) Earth is closest to the Sun during

the Earth's surface.

242) Most of the solar energy absorbed by planet Earth and its atmosphere is absorbed by

nitrogen

244) Which of the following gases does not absorb any portion of incoming solar radiation?

absorption of Earth radiation.

245) The atmosphere is heated primarily by

inclination of Earth's rotation axis.

252) The primary cause of the Earth's seasons is

absorptive

253) Atmosphere is strongly ________ with respect to terrestrial radiation.

perihelion.

257) Early in January the Earth is closer to the Sun than at any other time of year. This position is termed:

transparent

258) The atmosphere is nearly ________ to terrestrial radiation that has a wavelength between 8 and 11 micrometers.

oxygen

260) Which of the following gases is the best absorber of ultraviolet light?

scattering

297) The blue color of the sky is due to ________ of light.

latitude

298) The intensity of the Sun's rays at a place is determined by the time of year and the ________ of the place.

scattering

299) The brightness of the daytime sky is due to ________ of light.

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