For thousands of years, people did not know about bacteria until a man named Antonie van Leeuwenhoek used his simple ________ to look at scrapings from his teeth.
Some bacteria have a thick, gel-like ________ around the cell wall. This helps protect the bacterium.
Many bacteria that live in moist conditions have whiplike tails called ________ that help them move.
When environmental conditions are unfavorable bacteria produce thick walled capsules. Inside of the capsule that bacterium produces a dormant form called an ________.
Some bacteria produce chemicals called ________ that limit the growth of other bacteria.
The ________ in your intestine produce vitamin K, which is needed for your blood to clot.
A ________ is made from particles taken from damaged bacterial cell walls or from killed bacteria.
Many pathogens produce poisons called ________ as they grow in your body or as they grow in food that you might eat.
A very dangerous type of food poisoning that you can get from eating canned food with infected with certain types of bacteria is ________.
Most endospores and other bacteria can be destroyed by long-term heat treatment known as ________.
Cheeses, buttermilk, chocolate, vinegar, and sauerkraut are all produced with the aid of ________.
A process that is used to kill most harmful bacteria with a minimum effect on the flavor of the product is called ________.
Today, bacteria and their by-products are cultivated in ________, which are giant, sterile, stainless steel vats.
Sewage-treatment plants and septic systems use ________ to process and break down wastes.
A group of bacteria called ________-________ bacteria are the only organisms that can combine nitrogen with other chemicals so it can be used by plants.
Slime molds, water molds, and downy mildews are examples of ________-________ protists.
A fungus-like protist can be a ________, which means they get their energy from dead organisms.
A fungus-like protist can be a ________, which means they get their energy from living organsims.
Many protozoans contain special structures called ________ ________ which pumps excess water out of the cell.
Other protozoans are covered with ________, which are short , thread-like structures that extend from the cell membrane.
Another way some protozoans move is by using ________, which are temporary extensions of their cytoplasm.
This type of many-celled, plant-like protist can be red, brown, golden, or different shades of green.
All algae can make their own food and produce oxygen because they contain the green pigment ________.
________ can be used to make fertilizers, and the paint that makes road lines sparkle at night.
Algae are important as ________ for animals that live in lakes, rivers, oceans, and other bodies of water.
Sometimes so much algal growth is present that the water turns the color of the algae. This is called an ________ ________.
Fungi cells do not contain that green pigment ________ and they cannot make their own food.
Some fungi are ________ because they live in or on another living organism and cause it harm.
The body of a fungus is made up of a mass of many-celled, thread-like tubes called ________.
When fungi reproduce sexually the hyphae of two different organisms of the same type of fungus grow close together and ________.
During sexual reproduction when two hyphae fuse together are special ________ ________ grows where the two hyphae join, and spores are produced in this structure.
Fungi are classified according to the type of ________ ________ they produce their spores in or on.
The fuzzy, black mold that you sometimes find growing on old bread or a piece of fruit is a type of ________ ________.
Fungi are important for the environment because they break down ________ ________.
Food scraps, clothing, and dead plants and animals are made of ________ ________.
When fungi decompose and break down organic materials ________ is released and vital nutrients are returned to the ________.
A ________ is formed when a fungus and either a green algae or a cyanobacterium live together.
Lichens that grow in the surface cracks of a rock play an important role in the formation of ________.
The acids produced by lichens break down the rock and as these bits of rock accumulate and lichens die and decay ________ is formed.
Lichens can be used to help monitor ________ ________ in an area because they are sensitive to pollutants present in rain and air.
Lichens that grow upright and produce fruiting bodies are called ________ ________.
Lichens that grow on rocks and have a crusty appearance are called ________ ________.
Lichens that grow on trees and have a leafy appearance are called ________ ________.
A fungus called ________ can greatly increase the growth of plants because they grown on the roots of plants and allow the plant to absorb more water and nutrients.
Scientists have found ________ around 90 percent of the roots of plants they have studied.
When yeasts are used to make bread the yeasts will eat the sugars present in the bread and produce a gas called ________ ________. This is why bread has holes.
________ produced by some fungi can be used to fight bacterial infections in some humans.
The very first antibiotic ever made was ________. This antibiotic came from a fungus that was discovered by a man named Alexander Fleming and is still used widely today to fight many type of bacterial infections.
What is the shape of a bacterium if its genus species name is "Streptococcus mutans"?
What is the shape of a bacterium if its genus species name is "Streptobacillus moniliformis"?
What is the shape of a bacterium if its genus species name is "Peptostreptococcus"?
What is the shape of a bacterium if its genus species name is "Rhodospirillum rubrum"?
The white nodules on the roots of the plant in the picture above were produced by bacteria that fixes ________ so that plant can use it. The bacteria is called "Rhizobium" and and the nodules are called "Rhizobium nodules".
In picture "K" you can see bacteria that are capable of photosynthesis. They are also know as blue green-algae or blue-green bacteria. What is their real name?
In the picture of fungi structure above what is letter "A" pointing to?
In the picture above is a type of fungus reproduction. What type of reproduction is it?
In the picture above is a fungal growth that typically takes the form of a domed cap on a stalk, often with gills on the underside of the cap.
In the picture above is the spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically in the form of a rounded cap on a stalk. These are usually inedible or poisonous.
In the picture above is a fungus that grows on living trees or dead wood, forming one or more shelf-like projections that are spore-producing bodies. The hyphae spread through the wood absorbing nutrients and can cause the death of the tree.
In the picture above is a fungus that produces a spherical or pear-shaped fruiting body that ruptures when ripe to release a cloud of spores.
In the picture above is a microscopic fungus consisting of single oval cells that reproduce by budding, and are capable of converting sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
In the picture above is a furry growth of minute fungal hyphae occuring typically in moist, warm conditions, especially on food or other organic matter.
In the picture above is a widely distributed edible fungus that has a brown oval or pointed fruiting body with an irregular honeycombed surface bearing the spores.
In the picture above is a strong-smelling underground fungus that resembles an irregular, rough-skinned potato, growing chiefly near the roots of broad-leaf plants. They are a culinary delicacy.
In the picture above is a fungus in which the spore-producing layer forms the lining of a shallow cup.
The picture above shows bread mold which is a type zygospore fungi. These fungi produce spores in the black stalk-like structures you can see in the picture. What are these structures called?
The picture above shows a ________ lichen that look like miniature shrubs and grow an inch or so high.
In the picture above is a fungus that grows in association with the roots of plants. This fungus helps plants to absorb more water and nutrients from the soil.
In the picture above is a fungal infection of the skin that causes scaling, flaking, and itching of affected areas. It is typically transmitted in moist areas where people walk barefoot, such as showers or bathhouses. (Tinea pedis)
In the picture above is a very contagious, itching skin disease that occurs in small circular patches when it grows. It is caused by andy number of fungi and affects mainly the scalp or the feet.
In the picture above is a fungus that grows under the nail plate. When it grows it causes toenails to have a thickend, yellow, or cloudy appearance. The nails can become rough and crumbly, or can separate from the nail bed. There is usually no pain or other bodily symptoms, unless the disease is severe. The fungus also has a strong unpleasent odor.