Bacteria, Protists, Fungi

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everywhere

Bacteria are found almost ________.

microscope

For thousands of years, people did not know about bacteria until a man named Antonie van Leeuwenhoek used his simple ________ to look at scrapings from his teeth.

one-celled

All bacteria are ________-________ organisms.

prokaryotic

Bacteria cells are ________ because they do not have a nucleus.

individual

Bacteria can grow as ________ cells.

groups

Bacteria can grow together in ________.

chains

Bacteria can grow together in long ________.

producers

Bacteria that make their own food are called ________.

producer

Any organism that can make its own food is called a ________.

consumers

Bacteria that eat other organisms are called ________.

consumers

Organism's that cannot make their own food are called ________.

aerobic

Bacteria that use oxygen are ________.

anaerobic

Bacteria that do not use oxygen are ________.

cell membrane

A bacterium contains cytoplasm surrounded by a ________ ________ and a cell wall.

cell wall

A bacterium contains cytoplasm surrounded by a cell membrane and a ________ ________.

cytoplasm

The DNA of bacterium is found in the ________.

capsule

Some bacteria have a thick, gel-like ________ around the cell wall. This helps protect the bacterium.

flagella

Many bacteria that live in moist conditions have whiplike tails called ________ that help them move.

endospore

When environmental conditions are unfavorable bacteria produce thick walled capsules. Inside of the capsule that bacterium produces a dormant form called an ________.

three

There are ________ basic shapes to bacteria.

cocci

Sphere shaped bacteria are called ________.

bacilli

Rod shaped bacteria are called ________.

spirilla

Spiral shaped bacteria are called ________.

two

There are ________ main groups of bacteria.

archaebacteria

Bacteria that live in harsh environments are called ________.

eubacteria

Bacteria that live all around "YOU" are called ________.

eubacteria

The largest of the two groups of bacteria is ________.

consumers

Most eubacteria are ________ because they eat other organisms.

antibiotics

Some bacteria produce chemicals called ________ that limit the growth of other bacteria.

antibiotics

Many diseases in humans and animals can be treated with ________.

bacteria

The ________ in your intestine produce vitamin K, which is needed for your blood to clot.

pathogen

Any organism that causes disease is called a ________.

vaccine

A ________ is made from particles taken from damaged bacterial cell walls or from killed bacteria.

toxins

Many pathogens produce poisons called ________ as they grow in your body or as they grow in food that you might eat.

botulism

A very dangerous type of food poisoning that you can get from eating canned food with infected with certain types of bacteria is ________.

sterilization

Most endospores and other bacteria can be destroyed by long-term heat treatment known as ________.

foods

Many ________ that you enjoy are produced using bacteria.

bacteria

Cheeses, buttermilk, chocolate, vinegar, and sauerkraut are all produced with the aid of ________.

pasteurization

A process that is used to kill most harmful bacteria with a minimum effect on the flavor of the product is called ________.

bioreactors

Today, bacteria and their by-products are cultivated in ________, which are giant, sterile, stainless steel vats.

bacteria

Sewage-treatment plants and septic systems use ________ to process and break down wastes.

saprophyte

A ________ is any organism that uses dead material as a food and energy source.

nitrogen-fixing

A group of bacteria called ________-________ bacteria are the only organisms that can combine nitrogen with other chemicals so it can be used by plants.

protist

A ________ is a one or many-celled organism that lives in moist or wet environments.

eukaryotic

All protist cells are ________ because their cells contain a nucleus.

fungus-like

Slime molds, water molds, and downy mildews are examples of ________-________ protists.

saprophytes

A fungus-like protist can be a ________, which means they get their energy from dead organisms.

parasite

A fungus-like protist can be a ________, which means they get their energy from living organsims.

spores

All fungi reproduce by making ________.

asexual

When a fungi produces spores it is a type of ________ reproduction.

protozoans

One-celled, animal-like protists are known as ________.

contractile vacuoles

Many protozoans contain special structures called ________ ________ which pumps excess water out of the cell.

move

Protozoans often are separated into groups by how they ________ from place to place.

flagella

Many protozoans move using one or more whip-like ________.

cilia

Other protozoans are covered with ________, which are short , thread-like structures that extend from the cell membrane.

pseudopods

Another way some protozoans move is by using ________, which are temporary extensions of their cytoplasm.

consumers

All protozoans are ________ because they capture and digest other organisms.

algae

Plant-like protists are known as ________.

algae

Some species of ________ are one-celled and other are many-celled.

microscope

One-celled algae have structures that are visible only under the ________.

flagella

Many small algae have ________ and can move from place to place to get sunlight.

algae

This type of many-celled, plant-like protist can be red, brown, golden, or different shades of green.

chlorophyll

All algae can make their own food and produce oxygen because they contain the green pigment ________.

Algae

________ and their products are ingredients in toothpaste, pudding, and ice cream.

Algae

________ can be used to make fertilizers, and the paint that makes road lines sparkle at night.

parasites

Many protozoans are ________ that causes diseases in plants and animals.

malaria

A very dangerous disease caused by a protozoan is called ________.

mosquitoes

The protist that causes malaria is carried to humans by ________.

food

Algae are important as ________ for animals that live in lakes, rivers, oceans, and other bodies of water.

algae

Much of the oxygen dissolved in Earth's water is produced by ________.

algal bloom

Sometimes so much algal growth is present that the water turns the color of the algae. This is called an ________ ________.

decomposers

Many fungus-like protists are important ________.

many-celled

Most species of fungi are ________-________.

eukaryotic

Fungi cells are ________ because their cells contain a nucleus.

nucleus

Some fungi cells contain more than one ________.

cell wall

Like plant cells, fungi cells have an thick outer ________ ________.

roots

Fungi do not have leaves or ________.

chlorophyll

Fungi cells do not contain that green pigment ________ and they cannot make their own food.

producers

Fungi are not ________ because they cannot make their own food.

decomposers

Most fungi are ________ because they break down dead plants and animals.

parasites

Some fungi are ________ because they live in or on another living organism and cause it harm.

spores

Fungi reproduce by using small, waterproof structures called ________.

warm, humid

Fungi grow best in ________, ________ areas.

hyphae

The body of a fungus is made up of a mass of many-celled, thread-like tubes called ________.

food source

The hyphae grow throughout a fungus's ________ ________.

enzymes

To break down their food the hyphae of the fungus released chemicals called ________.

hyphae

Fungi use their ________ to perform sexual reproduction.

sex cells

When fungi reproduce sexually they do not produce ________ ________ like animals do.

fuse

When fungi reproduce sexually the hyphae of two different organisms of the same type of fungus grow close together and ________.

reproductive structure

During sexual reproduction when two hyphae fuse together are special ________ ________ grows where the two hyphae join, and spores are produced in this structure.

reproductive structure

Fungi are classified according to the type of ________ ________ they produce their spores in or on.

club fungi

These fungi produce their spores in club like structures called basidia.

club fungi

Mushrooms, shelf fungi, puffballs, and toadstools are examples of ________ ________.

sac fungi

These fungi produce their spores in tiny sac structures called asci.

sac fungi

Yeasts, molds, morels, and truffles are examples of ________ ________.

edible

Many morels, mushrooms, and truffles are ________ and grow in early spring.

zygospore fungi

These fungi produce their spores in stalk-like structures called sporangia.

zygospore fungi

Bread mold is an example of a type of ________ ________.

zygospore fungi

The fuzzy, black mold that you sometimes find growing on old bread or a piece of fruit is a type of ________ ________.

imperfect fungi

These are fungi that never have been observed undergoing sexual reproduction.

imperfect fungi

Athlete's foot is a type of ________ ________.

organic materials

Fungi are important for the environment because they break down ________ ________.

organic material

Food scraps, clothing, and dead plants and animals are made of ________ ________.

energy, soil

When fungi decompose and break down organic materials ________ is released and vital nutrients are returned to the ________.

recyclers

Fungi, along with bacteria, are nature's ________.

diseases

Fungi can cause ________ in plants and animals.

lichen

A ________ is formed when a fungus and either a green algae or a cyanobacterium live together.

soil

Lichens that grow in the surface cracks of a rock play an important role in the formation of ________.

acids

As lichens grow they release ________ as part of their metablolism.

soil

The acids produced by lichens break down the rock and as these bits of rock accumulate and lichens die and decay ________ is formed.

pollution levels

Lichens can be used to help monitor ________ ________ in an area because they are sensitive to pollutants present in rain and air.

environmental problems

The disappearance of lichens from an area can indicate ________ ________.

fruticose lichen

Lichens that grow upright and produce fruiting bodies are called ________ ________.

crustose lichen

Lichens that grow on rocks and have a crusty appearance are called ________ ________.

foliose lichen

Lichens that grow on trees and have a leafy appearance are called ________ ________.

mycorrhizae

A fungus called ________ can greatly increase the growth of plants because they grown on the roots of plants and allow the plant to absorb more water and nutrients.

mycorrhizae

Scientists have found ________ around 90 percent of the roots of plants they have studied.

yeasts

A fungus that is used to make bread rise is called ________.

carbon dioxide

When yeasts are used to make bread the yeasts will eat the sugars present in the bread and produce a gas called ________ ________. This is why bread has holes.

spoil

Fungi can ________ food.

athlete's foot

A fungus called ________ ________ grows on the feet of many humans.

antibiotics

Many fungi naturally produce ________ to prevent bacteria from growing near them.

Antibiotics

________ produced by some fungi can be used to fight bacterial infections in some humans.

penicillin

The very first antibiotic ever made was ________. This antibiotic came from a fungus that was discovered by a man named Alexander Fleming and is still used widely today to fight many type of bacterial infections.

body

Fungi can grow on or in your ________ and sometimes cause disease.

monera

Bacteria belong to kingdom ________.

bacterial colonies

What are the yellow and red-orange dots in the petri dish above?

protista

Protists belong to kingdom ________.

fungi

Fungi belong to kingdom ________.

twenty

A bacterial cell can reproduce every ________ minutes.

cocci

The bacteria circled in the picture above are called ________ bacteria.

coccus

The bacterium circled in the picture above is called a ________ bacterium.

bacilli

The bacteria in the picture above are called ________ bacteria.

bacillus

The bacterium circled in the picture above is called a ________ bacterium.

spirilla

The bacteria in the picture above are called ________ bacteria.

spirillum

The bacterium circled in the picture above is called a ________ bacterium.

sphere

What is the shape of a bacterium if its genus species name is "Streptococcus mutans"?

rod

What is the shape of a bacterium if its genus species name is "Bacillus anthracis"?

spiral

What is the shape of a bacterium if its genus species name is "Spirillum minus"?

rod

What is the shape of a bacterium if its genus species name is "Streptobacillus moniliformis"?

sphere

What is the shape of a bacterium if its genus species name is "Peptostreptococcus"?

spiral

What is the shape of a bacterium if its genus species name is "Rhodospirillum rubrum"?

nitrogen

The white nodules on the roots of the plant in the picture above were produced by bacteria that fixes ________ so that plant can use it. The bacteria is called "Rhizobium" and and the nodules are called "Rhizobium nodules".

cytoplasm

In the picture of bacteria structure above what is letter "A" ?

capsule

In the picture of bacteria structure above what is letter "B" ?

cell wall

In the picture of bacteria structure above what is letter "C" ?

cell membrane

In the picture of bacteria structure above what is letter "D" ?

pili

In the picture of bacteria structure above what is letter "E" ?

ribosomes

In the picture of bacteria structure above what is letter "F" ?

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