one main reason that preemptive analgesics are given is to prevent the occurrence of what?
benzodiazepines, phenothiazines, alpha-2 agonists, opioids, anticholinergics
5 groups of drugs used as premeds
what are the 2 benzodiazepines used?
what is is that the benzodiazepines bind to?
what is the main group of animals that you will use benzodiazepines on for sedation?
which of the benzodiazepines is water soluble (therefore it can be given via more routes)?
what is the DOA for both of the benzodiazepines?
dog, cat, horse
both benzodiazepines have minimal cardiovascular and respiratory effect, but cause excitement in what 3 species?
what is the reversal agent for the benzodiazepines?
due to diazepam being contained within a propylene glycol carrier, what can happen if it is given SQ?
what is the main phenothiazine used as a premed?
what is blocked by acepromazine?
acepromazine has a rapid onset of about 15 minutes and has a dose dependent DOA that is usually within what time range?
acepromazine can cause a decrease in CO, SV, and MAP due to vasodilation caused by its action on what receptor? (has minimal respiratory effects)
is there a reversal agent for acepromazine?
acepromazine can cause a decrease in the hematocrit for what reason?
xylazine, detomidine, medetomidine, dexmedetomidine, romifidine
what are the 5 alpha-2 agonists?
the alpha-2 agonists cause vasoconstriction which feeds back to the heart causing it to what in order to try and maintain its cardiac output?
which alpha-2 agonist also has the most alpha-1 agonistic effects? (therefore it needs a reversal agent with both alpha-1 and alpha-2 reversal agent in it)
which alpha-2 agonist can be used to induce emesis in cats?
blocks insulin production
why do alpha-2 agonists cause hyperglycemia?
what is blocked by alpha-2 agonists and causes increase urination?
what group of animals are VERY sensitive to alpha-2 agonists and need to have the dose decreased by 1/10th?
alpha-2 agonists can cause second degree AV blocks. should these be treated with anticholinergics?
is xylazine used more in small or large animals?
sheep have a unique population of macrophages that can cause what side effect when using xylazine?
what is the reversal agent for xylazine?
dexmedetomidine is currently not available in the US unless it is specially compounded, but what is wits reversal agent?
by what mean should you NOT give antipamezole to reverse dexmedetomidine (becuase it will reverse too quickly and if already hypertensive and bradycardic, will vasodilate faster than the heart can keep up with it)?
what species (other than "wildlife") is detomidine used for?
what can detomidine cause in horses that you need to be cautious of if keeping them standing during a procedure?
what is detomidine reversed with?
what species is romifidine primarily used in?
what is romifidine reversed with?
morphine, hydromorphone, fentanyl, butorphanol, buprenorphine
what are the 5 opioids used?
which of the opioid receptors causes analgesia, euphoria, bradycardia, and hypoventilation?
which of the opioid receptors causes analgesia, dysphoria, and sedation?
which of the opioid receptors causes analgesia and hypoventilation?
in what species is hyperthermia a possible side effect of opioids?
urinary retention is a side effect of opioid administration, especially when it is given via what route?
pure mu agonist
what type of agonist is morphine?
does morphine cause more analgesia or sedation?
morphine can cause excitement, especially in what species?
if morphine is given IV, what side effect do you risk occurring?
morphine has a DOA of around how many hours?
morphine can be reversed with an opioid antagonist such as _________________
pure mu agonist
what type of agonist is hydromorphone
DOA range of hydromorphone
what can hydromorphone be reversed with?
pure mu agonist
what type of agonist is fentanyl?
fentanyl has an onset of about 2-5 minutes and a DOA of how long?
what can fentanyl be reversed with?
what type of agonist is butorphanol?
which opioid has the most sedative effects?
DOA of analgesic effects of butorphanol is 1 hour and the sedative effect are how many hours?
minimal GI effects
why is butorphanol often used in horses?
partial mu agonist
what type of an agonist is buprenorphine?
onset of buprenorphine is 30-45 minutes and its DOA is how long?
of all the opioids, what is the only one that doesn't have good analgesia?
butorphanol has the most sedation of the opioids and the rest have moderate sedation, except for which one that has little sedation?
what are the 2 anticholinergic premeds used?
are the anticholinergic agents blocking sympathetic or parasympathetic effects?
do the anticholinergics cause analgesia, sedation, or neither?
anticholinergics are only used when what condition is present or anticipated?
what class of sedatives should anticholinergics NOT be used with?
which anticholinergic has a rapid onset and short duration?
which anticholinergic has a long onset and long duration?
which of the anticholinergics would you use for non-emergency anesthesia use?