Chp 2: The Role of Cells in Development

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transcription

(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA

polysomes

a group of ribosomes joined by a molecule of messenger RNA containing a portion of the genetic code that is to be translated. Polysomes are found in the cytoplasm and synthesize proteins.

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

responsible for the systhesis of proteins for export from the cell

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

System of internal membranes within the cytoplasm. Membranes are rough due to the presence of ribosomes. functions in transport of substances such as proteins within the cytoplasm

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

parts of the endoplasmic reticulum that are not associated with polysomes; serves in the synthesis of phospholipids for cellular membranes and other water-insoluble compounds.

Golgi apparatus

a stack of membranous sacs, where the proteins undergo further modifications

secretory vesicles

Membrane-bound sacs that pinch off of the Golgi Apparatus that carry lipids/proteins to the cell surface for excretion.

lysosomes

certain digestive enzymes leave the Golgi apparatus in these; they fuse inside the cell with other membranous vesicles;

endocytosis

process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane;

pinocytosis

the process by which the cell uptake fluid in small vesicles

phagocytosis

the process by which the cell uptakes microorganisms or other firm particles in large vesicles

mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production. Small organelles that provide energy for cellular processes: RNA synthesis, protein synthesis, and transport

receptor-mediated endocytosis

The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in; enables a cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances.

ligands

A molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.

cell cycle

for an organism to develop and reproduce its cells must increase in number; cyclic process of growth and division

cytoskeleton

provides internal organization and ability to move; a network of cellular filaments; regulates cell shape and movement within cells;

squamous cells

become epidermis

columnar cells

become neural plate

3 types of cytoskeletal filaments

microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments

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