Chapter 1

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Human belings first appeared in

sub-Saharan Africa

From it very beginning, Western civilization benefited from crops and animals originating in

the Middle East

The earliest stage of human history is called the

Paleolithic Age

The defining elemetns of civilization in the Neolithic Periods include all of the following EXCEPT

Great stong settlements

During the Paleolithic Age, the basic lifestyle of human being was primarily

Hunting and Gathering

During the Paleolithic and Neolithic ages, human tools were made primarily of

Stone

The most important development of the Neolithic Age was

Agriculture

Agriculture was developed in

The Neolithic Age

The chielf rivers of ancient Mesopotamia were

the Tigris and the Euphrates

The earliest known civilization of Mesopotamia was

Sumer

Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of Sumerian life?

Nomadic wandering, taking care of flocks

Sumerian religion

Was noted for its pessimism

The conqueror that invaded Sumer in about 230 BC was

Sargon of Akkad

The great epic poem of ancient Sumer was

The Epic of Gilgamesh

The Summerian system of writing

Is called cuneiform

Hammurabi of Babylong was known for

His law code

Which is NOT true about Hammurabi's law code?

It provided for trial by jury.

What is apart of the Hammurabi's law code? (3)

1. It opens a window into our understanding of ancient daily life.
2. It prescribed different penalties for each of the three social orders in Babylon.
3. Its states purpose was to prevent the strong from oppressing the weak.

What were the characteristics of Sumerian life? (3)

1. Irrigated agriculture
2. Centralized administration
3. Temples with priests and priestesses

What were teh defining element of civilizaiton in the Neolithic period? (3)

1. Developed agriculture
2. Permanent settlements
3.Domesticated animals

The Indo-Europeans (3)

1. Provided the basis for almost all European languages
2. Often fought and moved on horseback
3. Established the Hittite kingodom in what is now modern Turkey

The earliest important Indo-European people in teh Near Eastern world were the

Hittites

The chief rier of Egypt is the

Nile

The Egyptian concept of truth, justice, and order was expressed by the Egyptian word

Ma'at

The term hieroglyphs refers to

The sacred writing of Egypt

The great pyramids of Egypt were

Part of the Egyptian belief in the afterlife

The Middle Kingdom of Egypt

Saw an end to the anarchy of the First Intermediate Period.

On some occasions, the rule of Egypt was a women. By far the most powerful of these was

Hatshepsut

Among the Hebrew beliefs that have ahd an important impact of Western Civilization was (3)

1. The creation of the world at a specific time
2. The concept of ethical monotheism
3. That history was a purposeful, morally significant event

The new metal that transofrmed ancient warfar after 1200 BC was

Iron

The great empire that dominated the Middle East through a comination of iron weapons and ruthless terror was the

Assyrian

The success of teh Assyrian empire was based on (3)

1. The use of iron weaponry and systematic brutality
2. Skilled administration and the spread of the Aramiac language
3. Skilled military engineers and a trained officer corps

The great ruler of the Neo-Babylonian Empire was

Nebuchadnezzar

The Persian Empire under Cyrus was held together by

An administrative system that curbed the abuse of power by officials

The great Persiand religous prophet was

Zoroaster

The text argues that the Persians adopted many things from older civilization, but the adoption that had the greatest long-term impact was

Coinage, a Lydian invention

In the Paleolithic Age, humans lived in small bands of about 30-40 people. T/F

True

The ancient Middle East had fewer domesticated grains and animals than the Americans. T/F

False

Sumerians viewed their gods as benign, predictables beings who always worked for their city's welfare. T/F

False

By 2800 BCE., a sophisticated writing system had been developed in Sumer. T/F

True

In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh triumphs over death. T/F

False

Hammurabi's law code included "eye for an eye' types of punishments. T/F

True

Indo-European peoples have been so labeled because their language is the basis for a great many European languages, such as German, Finnish, Hungarian, and Basque. T/F

False

Ma'at for ancient Egyptians meant a divinely ordered concept of truth and justice. T/F

True

The Great Pyramid was built in the New Kingdom by Amenhotep IV. T/F

False

Akhenaten was teh last powerful pharaoh of Egypt. T/F

False

The earliest period of human developemnt is the

Paleolithic Age

The period from 10,000 to 3000 BC is the

Neolithic Age

The most important development during the later Neolithic period was

Agriculture

The broad curve of land that stretched from teh Persiand Gulf to the sthorts of the Mediterranean is known as the

Fertile Crescent

The two major rivers of mesopotamis are the Tiris and the

Euphrates

The Akkadian ruler who invaded Sumer in about 2350 BC was

Sargon

The chief character of the great Sumerian epic poem was

Gilgamesh

_______meaning wedge-shaped, was the form of Sumerian writing

Cuneiiform

The famous Babylonian king noted for his code of laws was

Hammurabi

The _________ were the Indo-European people who established a kingdom in what is now Turkey, in about 1650 BCE.

Hittites

The major river in Egypt is the

Nile

The earliest period of Egyptian history is called the

Old Kingdom

The word _____ symbolized Egyptian ideas of truth, justice, and order

Ma'at

The sacred writing of Egypt is referred to as

Heiroglyphics

The great stone monuments of ancient Egypt are called the

Pyramids

In Egyptian chronology, the Old Kingodom collapsed ans was followed by an anarchic era called teh First iNtermediat Period, then by a revival of royal authority termed the

Middle Kingdom

The New Kingdom pharoah, Akhenaten

Introduced new ideas in art and religion

The major cities of Phoenicia were

Sidon, Tyre, and Byblos

The most important contribution of the phoenicians to Western Civilization was the

Alphabet

What is true about the Hebrews prior to the reign of Saul? (3)

1. Israelite texts claim several clans were enslaved by the Egyptians.
2.Early Israel was led by charismatic leaders known as judges, who heped unite them against the treats of their neighbors.
3. The Scriptures give a precise historical, rather than religious, record of the time.

After the death of Solomon

His kingdom split in two: the northern kingdom aof Israel and the southern kingdom of Judah.

In addition to preaching monotheism, the Jewish prophets also

Preached that religion was not merely ritural, but also ethical behavior.

The Hebrews invented the alphabet. T/F

False

The ancient Phoenicians sailed the Mediterranean from the near East to Spain, and even into the Atlantic. T/F

True

The great Temple of Jerusalem was erected by Solomon, David's successor. T/F

True

The Assyrians used skilled administrators as well as terror to maintain their empire. T/F

True

During the Neo-Babylonian era, Babylonian scholars rejected atronlogy as superstition. T/F

False

Ahura mazda was the great prophet of the Persian religion. T/F

False

Who was the great prophet of the Persian religion?

Zoroaster

The greatest Egyptian expansion occurred during the period called the _______

New Kingdom

Thomose II, of the New Kingdom, was succeeded by his queen, ________

Hatsheput

Amenhotep IV changed his name to _______ when he began to worship the solar disk are the sole god.

Akhenaten

The Phoenicians' great contribution to Western culture was the ________.

Alphabet

_______ king of Israel and successor of Saul, fixed his captial at Jerusalem.

David

After the death of Solomon, his kingdom split into two: a northern realm called Israel, adna southern realm called _______.

Judah

Around the 8th century BCE Jews were urged by the ______ to follow higher ethical standards.

Prophets

Around 1200 BCE, a new netal, ______, began to replace bronze as the basic metal for military weapons.

Iron

The Mesopotamian empire known both for it extensive use of iron weapons and its rule by terror was the _______ Empire.

Assyrian

A cultivated, scholarly Assyrian king who was nonetheless a brutal conqueror was _______.

Ashurbanipal

The most important rule of the Neo-Babylonian Empire was _________.

Nebuchadrezzar

The founder of the Persian Empire was ________.

Cyrus

The major religious prophet of Persia was ________.

Zoroaster

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