government where political power is concentrated in the central government
political decision-making power is concentrated in the states
political decision-making power is shared
government of the people, by the people, and for the people
when the people vote directly on an issue. ex: a new england town meeting
(representative) elect people to make the decisions for the people
("consent of the governed") political power is rooted in ourselves
all about who controls the political decision-making process, says only a few interest groups and people control
there is competition among many different interest groups
when there are too many interest groups
caused by hyper-pluralism, nothing happens and gets done
the people who work for the federal government have the power.
declaration of independence
written in 1776 by thomas jefferson, who was inspired by john locke.
give government the right to govern us and make decisions and as long as its fair, they can stay. described as a "lawyer's brief justifying a revolution"
articles of confederation
(1781-88) created new government after the war. first written constitution of the U.S, each stage was like an independent country, sovereignty.
weaknesses of the articles of confederation
1. no taxing power.
2. couldn't regulate interstate commerce.
3. limited military powers.
4. no chief executive, no judiciary (national court)
5. each state only had 1 vote and it took 9/13 to pass a law and 13/13 to amend.
(1786) supporters of a strong central govt. met in hopes to change. only five states show up. agree to meet again in 1 year and in philly, in hopes of more supporters.
former revolutionary army guy had his farm land taken away for not paying taxes while at war. he and some supporters physically took over the courts in Mass.
tells the rest of the states that we need a central government.
may 1787, every state except rhode island shows up. also called the constitutional convention.
purposed a bicameral legislature, two houses (upper and lower), both decided on the basis of population. new govt have a judiciary (court) and chief executive
new jersey plan
purposed unicameral legislature, and each state only gets one vote. national judiciary, and multiple chief executives
great (connecticut) compromise
purposed by roger sherman, bicameral legislature, lower house (house of reps, decided on basis of population) and upper house (senate, every state gets two)
every slave will count as 3/5 of a person
slave trade compromise
allowed the slave trade to continue for 20 more years
(jeffersonians) opposed constitution because:
1. makes central govt too strong, too much power taken away from the states.
2. no bill of rights, federalist said they'd add one later.
85 newspaper essays written by alexander hamilton, james madison, and john jay. they were making arguments for the constitution, in attempt to convince the people of NY and VA that is it a good thing and we ought to ratify it.
federalist paper #10
written by james madision. political people were afraid that interest groups (factions) controlled the govt. madision argued against it, and attempts to answer some of these concerns
federalist paper #78
written by alexander hamilton. about judicial review, arguments in favor of it.
the ability of the judiciary to examine the acts of congress and determine if its unconstitutional
congress passes law-president can check the power of congress by vetoing it and send it back-judicial review (can determine it unconstitutional)-congress can overide the veto
when the house of reps brings charges against you, case goes to the senate who can either acquit or convict you (must be a 2/3 vote)
informally amending the constitution
1. congressional legislature
2. executive actions
3. judicial decisions
when congress "clarify" and expands the constitution.
(1789) created the federal court system.
civil rights act
(1964) outlawed discrimination in public places
may not be specifically listed in the constitution, but the power is taken anyways
personal advisers to the president, no one has the right to see the notes circulated between them.
an agreement between the president and the head of another country.
faith and credit clause, and amenity clause
reserved powers, all powers not listed in the constitution are reserved to the states
congress shall make no law disrespecting the establishment of a religion, nor prohibiting the free exercise.
due process clause
can't take away life, liberty, and property without being processed under the law.
if the govt takes away your property for public benefit purposes, they must compensate you with the fair market value for your land.
if you are fined or issued bails, it has to be fair, protection from cruel and unusual punishment
all rights not listed in the constitution are kept by the people
prevents people from suing the federal govt
separation of election. electoral members will vote for president, then in a separate election, vote for vp. if no one gets a majority vote, the top 3 candidates goes to the house of reps, each state receiving 1 vote.
amendments 13, 14, and 15
civil war amendments
gave former male slaves the right to vote, expanded suffrage
(1913) before state legislatures chose U.S. senators, now the power is in the people, democratized the senate.
(1920) expanded suffrage by giving women the right to vote
expanded suffrage by making the poll tax illegal
in southern states, when you registered to vote, certain groups weren't allowed to pay a ____ ___, preventing them from voting.
talks about presidential disability and succession. when the president knows he'll be disabled, he writes a letter to congress and says a time period when VP takes over. if he's unexpectedly disabled,VP and a majority of the cabinet will write the letter
expanded suffrage by enabling 18 year old the right to vote, caused by the vietnam war.