Grammar Vocab

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simple

a type of sentence; has 1 independent clause

compound

a type of sentence; has 2 independent clauses connected with a conjunction

complex

a type of sentence; has 1 independent clause and 1 or more dependent clauses

compound-complex

a type of sentence; has 2 independent clauses and 1 or more dependent clauses

fanboys

coordinating conjunctions; for, and, not, but, or, yet, so

transitive

this type of verb takes an object

intransitive

this type of verb does not take an object

passive voice

subject is being acted upon; avoid this construction when writing

active voice

subject is acting

relative pronoun

this type of pronoun can introduce a dependent clause; Ex: that, what, which, who, whom, whose
whatever, whichever, whoever, whomever

adverb subordinator

introduce dependent clauses; Ex:after,although, as,as if,as soon as,as though, because,before, even if, even though,how if,in order that, once,why,since, so that,than,that,though,unless,
until,when,whenever,where,whereas,wherever, whether,while

independent

a type of clause that can be a sentence on its own

dependent

a type of clause that is a sentence fragment if left by itself because it does not make sense

gerund

a verbal word/phrase that names something and acts as a noun ending in -ing

elliptical construction

a construction in which one or more words are omitted in the belief that they are understood; Ex:They also suggested we take a bag for our leftovers. (after suggested the word "that" is understood)

antecedent

the pronoun that replaces the noun in a sentence

appositive

a noun or something acting as a noun which renames a preceding noun;must be enclosed in commas

collective

nouns that act as a single unit so they have a singular verb(the group is...); but if the unit is identified it receives a plural verb(the men are..)

essential clause

one in which the clause is needed to name the subject so it is not enclosed in commas

non-essential clause

one in which the clause is not needed to name the subject since it is already named so it is enclosed in commas

semi-colon

used to connect independent clauses instead of using conjunctions; cannot separate 2 independent clauses with just a comma=r.o.s.

citation

go outside of the quote; if it is the end of a sentence there is punctuation after it

introductory phrase

at the beginning of a sentence; has to have a comma after the phrase; can open a sentence in a prepositional phrase, adverb, or dependent(adverb) clause

interrupter

a type of word/phrase that is enclosed by commas because it interjects; Ex: therefore,however,for example,of course,nevertheless,on one hand...)

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