Temperament (Ch 6, 190).
Temperament defined as early appearing stable individual differences in REACTIVITY & SELF-REGULATION. Thomas & Chess identify 3 types: 1=EASY(40%)--regular, cheerful, adaptable; 2.DIFFICULT(10%)--irregular in routine, slow to adapt to newness, reacts neg. & intinsely; 3. SLOW-TO WARM-UP (15%)--inactive, low-key reactions, neg. mood, adjusts slowly to newness.
Vygotsky (Ch1, 23)
Sociocultural Theory=how culture passes to next generation through SOCIAL INTERACTION (Dialogue+language). This is how children learn to think & behave. Children INTERNALIZE essentials of dialogue that guide their own thinking and actions. KEY TERM: Socially Mediated Process= development is dependent upon support from adults & peers. Mr. V's theory DOES NEGLECT biological, hereditary, and brain growth influences. He does not address the independent capacity of the individual child.
Habituation (Ch 4, 134).
A reduction in response strength due to repetitive stimuli. A NEW stimulus (environmental change) heights response strength ( called RECOVERY).
Imitation (Ch4, 135)
Newborns have the ability to COPY behaviors of other humans. Gestures, head movements, expressions. MIRROR NEURONS underlie this ability.
Cerebral Cortex (Ch4, 123-124)
Surrounds brain. Resembles walnut shell. most complex of brain structures. Responsible for: intelligence in humans. REGIONS: auditory, visual, movement, language, Frontal lobes=thought=consciousness, impulse control, information integration, behavior regulation, thoughtful planning.
Alcohol (Ch 3, 89-91)
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can lead to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome(FAS). Characteristics=MR, impaired motor coordination, attention deficits, memory dysfunction, language dysfunction & hyperactivity. Also characterized by slow growth & facial abnormalities. RELATED CONDITION: FAE = Fetal Alcohol Effects= children who present with some but not all of the abnormalities of FAS.