According the Freedman, what is the definition of family?
"Two or more persons who are joined together by bonds of sharing and emotional closeness and who identify themselves as being part of the identity. "
According to the US Census bureau, what is the definition of family?
Two or more persons related by blood, marriage, or adoption and residing together.
What are the two purposes of family?
1. Provides the society with members; meet the needs of society.
2. Meet the needs of individuals in the family.
Why work with families?
The family is a critical source in delivering health care; our primary goal is to increase the health and wellness of the family, thereby increasing the overall health of all the individuals of that family.
By reaching one member of the family, what consequently does the family nurse accomplish?
Reaching to the other members of the family.
What are the six stages of health and illness?
1. Health promotion
2. Family appraisal of symptoms
3. Care seeking
4. Referral and obtaining care
5. Acute response to illness by client and family
6. Adaptation to illness and recovery
What are some of the characteristics of healthy families?
1. Energized families (Pratt, 1976)
2. Optimally functioning families
3. Resilient families (McCubin & associates, 1999)
4. Families that encourage the members to reach their own potential
Name some societal changes that are effecting families.
1. Economic changes
2. Technological changes
3. Sociocultral changes (changes in racial/ethnic portrait)
4. Changes in family (decrease in family and household size, women having children later in life, single parent families, couples living together.)
What is an extended family?
A child lives with at least one parent and a member outside of the family- related or not- lives with them.
What is a binuclear family?
A child is a member of a family system composed of 2 nuclear households, maternal and paternal.
Describe the levels of family nursing.
1. family as a context
2. family as a sum of its parts
3. family subsystem as clients
4. family as client
5. family as a component of society
Describe the first level of family nursing.
1. family as a context; family is the background and the individual as a foreground or primary focus of assessment and intervention.
Describe the second level of family nursing.
2. family as a sum of its parts; the family is seen as the accumulation or some of its individual family members. foreground is each of the clients seen as separate rather than interacting units.
Third level of family nursing?
3. family subsystem as clients; interaction between mother and child, marital interactions, etc...
Fourth level of family nursing?
4. family as client; the entire family is viewed as client or as the primary focus of assessment and care.
Fifth level of family nursing?
5. family as a component of society; seen as other components are viewed in society (religious, social organizations)
Describe Orem's theory of nursing.
Nursing care is required when an adult is unable to perform self-care sufficient to sustain life, maintain health, recover from disease or injury, or cope with the effects of illness.
Describe Roy's adaptation model.
Nursing care focuses on the person's response to interactions with the external environment and to internal and external stimuli affected adaptations,
Describe King's theory of goal attainment.
The goal is to help individual's maintain their health so they can function in their roles.
Describe Nightengale's attitude in regards to family.
"Badly constructed houses do for the healthy what badly constructed hospitals do for the sick. Once . . . The air in a house is stagnant, sickness is to follow"
Describe the family structural-functional theory.
Emphasizes the organization or structure of the family and how the structure facilitates the family functions.
What are the functional dimensions of family?
affective, socialization, health-care, economic, and reproductive functions
Describe the General Systems theory.
1. Systems do not exist in a vacuum: context critical
2. All parts of family systems are interconnected or interrelated
3. The whole is greater than the the sum of it's parts [emphasis on the whole rather than the individual]
4. Whatever affects the system as a whole affects each of the parts and vice versa (ripple effect)
5. Causes and effects are interchangeable
6. Family systems are self-reflexive and goal seeking
Describe the family developmental theory.
Explains how and what developmentally based changes occur to human organisms or groups over time. Achievement of family developmental tasks assists individual members to accomplish their tasks.
Describe the family stress theory.
Looks at the family's resources available to assists it in dealing with stress.
What are the three types of coping strategies?
1. Modifies stressful situation
2. Control the meaning of the problem
3. Accommodate to and manage existing stress rather than deal with the problem or stressor itself
What are the internal family coping strategies?
1. Family group reliance
2. Role flexibility
3. Cognitive Strategies
What are some external family coping strategies?
1. Seeking Information
2. Maintaining active linkages with the community:
3. Seeking social support
What are some dysfunctional coping strategies?
Denial of problems and exploitation of one or more members:
-Scapegoating, use of threat
-Family violence, abuse and neglect
According to the systems perspective, what is culture?
systems of socially transmitted behavioral patterns that link human groups to their environmental settings, as well as systems of social change and organization that act to mediate societal adaptation
What is race?
Race denotes biological variations distinguished people based on physical characteristics such as skin color, facial features, and hair texture
What is acculturation?
process of exposure of persons from one culture to another culture. Comprises those gradual changes produced when an individual from one culture adopts the traits of the dominant/host culture.
What is assimilation?
when the "new' culture exerts enough influence to almost extinguish the original ethnic influence
What is biculturalism?
participation in two cultural systems , with two separate sets of behaviors and ways of thinking
What are the 6 aspects of cultural competence?
1. Awareness and acceptance of cultural differences
2. Self-awareness of own culture
3. Understanding the dynamics of differences (Seeing the family within own cultural context)
4. Knowledge of client's family culture
5. Adaptation of services to support the client's culture
6. Responding to families/family members in an empathetic manner